Oral colonization by yeasts in HIV-positive patients in Brazil

Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo (Impact Factor: 1.01). 01/2012; 24(1):17-24.


Introduction: In HIV-infected patients, colonization of the oral cavity by potential pathogenic yeast may lead to development of systemic fungemia. We evaluated the prevalence of yeast in the oral cavity of Brazilian HIV-positive patients and verified whether
or not the species characterized were enzymatically active. Furthermore, the species identified were tested for their susceptibility to
antifungal treatment. Methods: Patient saliva and oropharyngeal candidiasis samples were collected from 60 seropositive HIV patients and identified by the API20C system. Enzymatic activity was evaluated by the production of proteinase and phospholipase. Susceptibility to antifungal treatments were determined using the broth microdilution method. Results: the most commonly isolated species were
C. albicans (51.56%) followed by non-albicans Candida species (43.73%), Trichosporon mucoides (3.12%) and Kodamaea ohmeri (1.56%). Oral colonization by association of different species was observed in 42% of the patients. Enzymatic activity was verified in most of species isolated, except for C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii. Resistance to Fluconazole and Amphotericin B was observed in isolates of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, and K. ohmeri. Conclusion: HIV-positive patients
are orally colonized by single or multiple species of yeast that are occasionally resistant to Fluconazole or Amphotericin B.

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Available from: Rodnei Dennis Rossoni, May 04, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background Oral Candida colonization and its relation with predisposing factors in HIV-infected patients have received wide concerns during recent decades. In this study, we investigated asymptomatic oral Candida carriage rate, species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of 604 HIV-infected patients and 851 healthy individuals in Kunming, Yunnan Province of China. Methods Mucosal swab sampling was taken from each subject and CHROMagar Candida agar medium and API 20C AUX system were used to identify yeast isolates. In vitro antifungal susceptibility was tested by the broth microdilution method according to the M27-A2 document of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). Results The oral yeast colonization rate in HIV-infected patients (49.5%) was higher than that of healthy subjects (20.7%). Candida albicans constituted the most frequent species, accounting for 82.2% of yeast isolates. The remaining species were composed of C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. rugosa, C. norvegensis, Pichia ohmeri and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In HIV-infected patients, asymptomatic oral yeast colonization was associated with low CD4 cell count (<200 cells/mm3) and lack of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Different Candida species isolated from our samples presented different susceptibility to voriconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole. Amphotericin B had the best inhibiting effect for all isolates. Conclusion Oral yeast colonization in Han Chinese patients with HIV from Kunming had common and unique features and was associated with CD4 cell number and HARRT. Amphotericin B should be used with first priority in controlling Candida infection in Han Chinese patients from Kunming. Our results provide first hand information on monitoring oral yeasts colonization in HIV-infected patients from Kunming, China.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study assessed the phenotypic aspects of oral-cavity Candida albicans isolates from 300 HIV-1-positive patients, relating the most commonly investigated virulence factors (enzyme typing and germ-tube formation) to the most common morphotypes. The samples were seeded into specific media for isolation and subsequent identification using the automated Vitek 2 system. The following assays were performed for phenotypic characterization: morphotyping, germ-tube formation and enzyme typing. Out of 300 collected samples, 144 tested positive for yeasts of the Candida genus, 98 (32.7 %) of which were identified as C. albicans. The latter samples were attributed to seven different morphotypes; the three most common morphotypes were 7208 (49 %), 7308 (14.3 %) and 3208 (13.3 %). All of the C. albicans isolate samples formed germ tubes and produced the enzymes proteinase and phospholipase, with an activity classified as intermediate to high. Due to the identification of virulence factors among the analyzed samples, monitoring of HIV-1-positive patients colonized by different morphotypes must be established because these morphotypes are extremely pathogenic and can trigger severe fungal infections.
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