• Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract: The main aim of this study was to improve the detection of Babesia (B.) spp. in naturally infected cattle in Egypt. In addition, we analyzed the pattern of expression of selected cytokine genes in response to infection of bovines with B. bovis and B. bigemina. Infections were detected using both, traditional and novel diagnostic techniques competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). Blood samples were collected from 296 healthy Egyptian cattle and examined for babesial infection. Higher prevalence was recorded by cELISA, followed by nPCR, whereas lowest prevalence was recorded by microscopic examination of blood smears. Twenty bovine samples that were found positive for B.bovis, twenty samples that were positive for both species (B.bovis and B. bigemina) using cELISA and nPCR and twenty samples, negative for both species using the same techniques, were selected to carry out a real-time PCR for the quantification of expression of the cytokines genes Interferon gamma (IFN- ), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 ) and Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF- 1). All of the Babesia-positive samples were considered to have sub-clinical infection of babesiosis. The results revealed that infected cattle showed highly significant up-regulation of IL-1 and TGF- 1 genes and down-regulation of IFN- gene when compared with non-Babesia infected animals. The improvement of babesial infection diagnosis combined with the understanding of the immune complex response will facilitate our understanding of the disease and the development of improved methods for control.
    Global Veterinaria. 01/2014; 12((2)):197-206.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bovine piroplasmosis is caused by tick-borne hemoprotozoans of the genera Babesia and Theileria and is the most prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries, causing a major economic impact worldwide. In the current study, a total of 405 cattle of different ages, sexes, and breeds were randomly sampled for surveying and diagnosis of babesiosis and theileriosis using three methods: direct microscopy (blood smears), indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed that, out of 405 examined cattle, 33 (8.15 %) were infected with Babesia sp. and 65 (16.05 %) with Theileria sp. (total number of infected cattle was 98). Mixed infection was seen in 11 (2.72 %) animals. Moreover, application of the three diagnostic assays on 158 randomly sampled cattle indicated that 17 (10.76 %) and 33 (20.89 %) were positive for Babesia and Theileria spp. by the direct smear technique, 25 (15.82 %) and 33 (20.89 %) by IFAT (fluorescence was greenish yellow for Babesia and yellowish for Theileria), and 20 (12.66 %) and 38 (24.05 %) by PCR. Using primers specific for Babesia and Theileria spp., we found that diagnostic bands appeared at ~350 and ~370 bp, respectively indicating the presence of these piroplasms. Statistically, there was a non-significant difference of the positivity in response to the three techniques; thus, any of these methods can be described as useful for diagnosing blood parasites in both domesticated animals and birds. On the basis of the obtained results, it could be concluded that direct microscopy can be used in acute infections, whereas IFAT and PCR are useful in chronicity.
    Parasitology Research 04/2012; 111(3):1019-24. · 2.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In order to determine the molecular and serological prevalence of Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis, a total of 247 blood samples were collected from cattle and water buffalos in Beheira and Faiyum Provinces in Egypt and examined by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In cattle, the prevalence of B. bigemina and B. bovis was 5.30% and 3.97% by nPCR and 10.60% and 9.27% by ELISA, respectively, whereas those of water buffalos were 10.42% and 4.17% by nPCR and 15.63% and 11.46% by ELISA, respectively. Statistically significant differences in the prevalence of the two infections were observed on the basis of age and health status. Sequencing analysis revealed two genotypes for B. bovis spherical body protein-4. In conclusion, the current data provide valuable information regarding the epidemiology of B. bigemina and B. bovis infections in cattle and water buffalos from Egypt, which can be employed in developing future strategies for disease management and control.
    Veterinary Parasitology 09/2013; · 2.55 Impact Factor