Physical and chemical characterization of purified ovalbumin messenger RNA

Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 10/1975; 250(17):7027-39.
Source: PubMed


Preparative agarose gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions has been successfully employed to purify large quantities of ovalbumin mRNA from hen oviducts. The mRNA thus prepared is physically homogeneous based on its migration as a single component on electrophoresis in both analytical acid-urea agarose gels and formamide-containing, neutral polyacrylaminde gels; it also sediments as a single peak in sucrose gradients containing 70% formamide. The mRNA is chemically free of ribosomal RNA contamination since its oligonucleotide fingerprint map after complete T1 ribonuclease digestion contains no detectable specific large oligonucleotide markers of ribosomal RNAs. It is also not contaminated by other biologically active messenger RNAs because, when it is added to the cell-free wheat germ translation system, the only protein product synthesized is ovalbumin as analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and specific immunoprecipitation. Ovalbumin mRNA has a nucleotide composition of 32.3% A, 21.0% G, 25.7% U, and 20.7% C [(A+U)/(G+C) equal 1.41]. The mRNA contains a heterogeneous poly(A) tract ranging from 20 to 140 residues with a number average chain length of 62 adenylate residues. The molecular weight of the sodium salt of the purified mRNA is approximately 650,000 +/- 63,000, corresponding to a chain length of 1890 +/- 180 nucleotides, as determined by electron microscopy under completely denaturing conditions. This value is in close agreement with the values obtained from: (a) sucrose gradient centrifugation in the presence of 70% formamide; (b) evaluation of poly(A) content in the mRNA and the number average chain length of its poly(A) tract; and (c) sedimentation velocity studies in the presence of 3% formaldehyde. When 125I-labeled ovalbumin mRNA is allowed to hybridize with a large excess of chick DNA, the observed kinetics of hybridization reveal no appreciable reaction between the mRNA and the repeated sequences of the chick DNA, although the mRNA appears to be approximately 600 nucleotides longer than necessary to code for ovalbumin. It thus appears that the entire ovalbumin mRNA is primarily transcribed from a unique sequence in the chick genome.

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Available from: Anthony R Means, Oct 04, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Cellulose-bound DNA complementary to ovalbumin mRNA was used in a continous hybridization system to isolate single-stranded DNA molecules containing the ovalbumin gene. Fragmented DNA segments containing the ovalbumin gene were enriched 300-350 fold in one cycle of purification. Two cycles of purification resulted in a DNA fraction which was enriched 2300 fold in the ovalbumin sequence. The method is suitable for purification of the ovalbumin sequence from both sheared DNA fragments, as well as larger molecular weight DNA containing more than twice the number of nucleotides necessary to code for ovalbumin mRNA. The chromatographic procedures were specific and reproducible. In addition, the recovery of ovalbumin DNA was essentially quantitative (80-100%), even when large amounts of starting DNA (70-75 mg) were used. This purification scheme should also be useful for the enrichment of other unique sequence gened form eucaryotic DNA.
    Cell 04/1976; 7(3):331-8. DOI:10.1016/0092-8674(76)90162-8 · 32.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present evidence that the poly(A) sequence at the 3' end of ovalbumin mRNA has an effect on its translational efficiency in a reticulocyte lysate cell-free system. Polynucleotide phosphorylase has been used to remove selectively the poly(A) while leaving the rest of the molecule intact. It is shown that the stability of the mRNA in a cell free system is not appreciably affected by this procedure. Measurements of the size of ovalbumin-synthesizing polysomes, rate of peptide elongation, and number of rounds of translation per messenger show a generally reduced efficiency for deadenylated mRNA compared to native mRNA. No comparable difference was observed in experiments with a wheat germ cell-free system, which gives few rounds of translation per mRNA. This indicates that the effect results from a lowering of the efficiency of reinitiation on deadenylated mRNA.
    Cell 06/1976; 8(1):51-8. DOI:10.1016/0092-8674(76)90184-7 · 32.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. The major milk proteins synthesized by the lactating mammary gland of the guinea pig were identified and designated as caseins A, B and C and alpha-lactalbumin, with estimated mol.wts. of 28000, 25500, 20500 and 14500 respectively. 2. Antisera to the total casein fraction and to alpha-lactalbumin were prepared from rabbits. The milk proteins were also iodinated with either 131I or 125I. 3. A poly(A)-rich RNA fraction was isolated from lactating guinea-pig mammary glands. Isolation was by affinity chromatography on oligo(dT)-cellulose. 4. Examination of this RNA fraction by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels containing formamide indicated three major species 1, 2 and 3, with estimated wol.wts. of 5.4 X 10(5) and 3.3 X 10(5), and the apparent absence of rRNA species. 5. The poly(A)-rich RNA stimulated protein synthesis in heterologous cell-free systems based on wheat germ, Krebs II ascites-tumour cells, and the latter supplemented with an initiation factor-3 fraction from rabbit reticulocyte ribosomes. 6. Between 80 and 90% of the protein synthesis directed by the mRNA was for milk proteins. 7. Analysis of the proteins immunoprecipitated by the alpha-lactalbumin antiserum showed in the wheat-germ system that the product was a protein with a molecular weight greater than that of alpha-lactalbumin, whereas in the ascites-tumour-cell systems both this protein and alpha-lactalbumin were found. When the larger protein was treated with CNBr and the resulting peptides were examined, it was shown that the extra peptide was at the N-terminus. This and other evidence is adduced for the initial translation product of alpha-lactalbumin being a precursor with an addition of about ten amino acids at the N-terminus. 8. Similar analysis of the casein immlnospecific proteins produced under the direction of mRNA indicated that the products had a molecular weight that was apparently a littel smaller than that of the caseins synthesized in vivo. This was not consistent with higher-molecular weight casein precursors. 9. Possible explanations for the results obtained are discussed, especially in terms of the physiological significance of the pre-alpha-lactalbumin as a secretory protein.
    Biochemical Journal 11/1976; 160(1):57-74. DOI:10.1042/bj1600057 · 4.40 Impact Factor
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