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Torsade De Pointes, an atypical ventricular tachycardia.

Heart 03/1976; 38(2):117-20. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2044.1983.tb13989.x
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    Heart 03/1976; 38(2):117-20.
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    ABSTRACT: Complete atrioventricular (AV) block is frequently regarded as a cause of informed syncopal attacks, even though the escape rhythm is maintained. Torsade de pointes (TdP) may be a significant complication of AV block associated with QT prolongation. Here, we report the case of a 42-year-old female who was referred to our hospital due to recurrent seizure-like attacks while taking anti-convulsant drugs at a psychiatric hospital. TdP with a long QT interval (corrected QT = 0.591 seconds) was observed on an electrocardiogram (ECG) taken in the emergency department. The patient's drug history revealed olanzapine as the suspicious agent. Even after the medication was stopped, however, the QT interval remained within an abnormal range and multiple episodes of TdP and related seizure-like symptoms were found via ECG monitoring. A permanent pacemaker was thus implanted, and the ventricular rate was set at over 80 beats/min. There was no recurrence of tachyarrhythmia or other symptoms.
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 03/2011; 26(1):99-102.
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    ABSTRACT: Early afterdepolarizations (EADs) are linked to both triggered arrhythmias and reentrant arrhythmias by causing premature ventricular complexes (PVCs), focal excitations, or heterogeneous tissue substrates for reentry formation. However, a critical number of cells that synchronously exhibit EADs are needed to result in arrhythmia triggers and substrates in tissue. In this study, we use mathematical modeling and computer simulations to investigate EAD synchronization and arrhythmia induction in tissue models with random cell-to-cell variations. Our major observations are as follows. Random cell-to-cell variations in action potential duration without EAD presence do not cause large dispersion of refractoriness in well-coupled tissue. In the presence of phase-2 EADs, the cells may synchronously exhibit the same number of EADs or no EADs with a very small dispersion of refractoriness, or synchronize regionally to result in large dispersion of refractoriness. In the presence of phase-3 EADs, regional synchronization leads to propagating EADs, forming PVCs in tissue. Interestingly, even though the uncoupled cells exhibit either no EAD or only a single EAD, when these cells are coupled to form a tissue, more than one PVC can occur. When the PVCs occur at different locations and time, multifocal arrhythmias are triggered, with the foci shifting in space and time in an irregular manner. The focal arrhythmias either spontaneously terminate or degenerate into reentrant arrhythmias due to heterogeneities and spatiotemporal chaotic dynamics of the foci.
    Biophysical Journal 07/2012; 103(2):365-73. · 3.67 Impact Factor

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