Ostwald solubility coefficients of some industrially important substances.

British journal of industrial medicine 06/1976; 33(2):106-7. DOI: 10.1136/oem.33.2.106
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Solubility coefficients in blood for benzene, toluene, and xylene were determined as 6.5, 16, and 42 respectively. In lard and olive oil, which were taken to represent human fat, corresponding values were about 450, 1300, and 3900. The coefficient for vinyl chloride in lard and olive oil was 20; the value in blood was too low to be determined by the technique used. Trichloroethylene, used as a marker, was found to have a coefficient in lard of 660, and in olive oil of 710, rather lower values than have been accepted for fat.

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    ABSTRACT: The new technique of selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) has been applied to the measurement of Henry's Law constants for the volatile organic chemicals o-xylene and trichloroethylene that both have low solubility in aqueous solvents. The method is validated by measurements in water at 298 K using the equilibrium partitioning in closed systems (EPICS) methodology in which the equilibrium headspace concentrations for the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are measured in two sealed bottles containing different liquid volumes of very dilute solutions of the VOC. The range of solvents is then extended to human body fluids at 309 K including urine, saline, whole blood, red cells in saline, and plasma. The dimensionless distribution coefficients for these solvents vary markedly in the different fluids. For o-xylene they range from k(H) = 0.12-0.15 for water, saline, and urine; 0.53 for red cells in saline; 1.9 for whole blood; to 2.4 for plasma. For trichloroethylene the distribution coefficients range from k(H) = 0.070-0.091 for water, saline, and urine; 0.28 for red cells in saline; 0.35 for plasma; to 0.48 in whole blood. The very different solubilities of organic solvents in body fluids influence the uptake of solvents in workers exposed to VOCs. Some implications of these measurements are briefly discussed.
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    ABSTRACT: Three fish species of the family Batrachoididae, the gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta), the oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau), and the plainfin midshipman (Porichthys notatus) demonstrated exceptionally high tolerances to elevated water ammonia with 96-h LC50 values of 9.75, 19.72 and 6 mM total ammonia, respectively. Using pH values we calculated the corresponding unionized ammonia (NH3) values to be 519, 691 and 101 μM, respectively. These values are well above typical values for most teleost fishes, but close to those of ureotelic fish examined to date. Following sublethal high ammonia exposure (HAE) blood and tissue (brain, liver and muscle) sampling confirmed that internal ammonia levels rose substantially in all three species, suggesting that they were not simply avoiding toxicity by impermeance to ammonia. The three species of batrachoidids can be characterized in the following manner with respect to the inabilities to synthesize and excrete urea, based on these studies and prior research: O. beta (fully ureotelic)>O. tau (moderately ureotelic)>P. notatus (ammoniotelic). While some of the high ammonia tolerance for O. beta and O. tau can be explained by their ability to detoxify it to urea, other mechanisms must be at play for P. notatus. Further experiments determined that all three species possess rather high activities of glutamine synthetase (GSase) in brain especially (60–180 U g−1), that glutamine accumulates in many tissues, and that LC50 values are correlated positively with brain GSase activity. Taken together, our results suggest that alternative/additional mechanisms for ammonia detoxification via urea synthesis must be considered to explain the exceptionally high ammonia tolerance of this group.
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    ABSTRACT: Liquid/air partition coefficients were determined for dilute solutions of ethanol in water, whole blood, and plasma at various equilibrium temperatures from 20 degrees to 40 degrees C. Ethanol was determined in air and liquid samples by gas chromatography. The partition coefficients decreased exponentially as the temperature of equilibrium increased. The slopes of the regression lines were not significantly different and the mean temperature coefficient of solubility was 6.5% 1 degrees C. At 37 degrees C, the partition coefficients for water/air, whole blood/air, and plasma/air were 2133, 1756, and 2022, respectively. The blood/air relationships were well correlated with the water content of the samples (r = 0.67, p less than 0.001). With sodium fluoride as the blood anticoagulant at 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/mL, the concentration of ethanol in the equilibrated air phase rose by 3.2%, 5.4%, and 8.9%, respectively compared with heparinized blood.
    Journal of analytical toxicology 07/1983; 7(4):193-7. · 2.11 Impact Factor


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