Cytomegalovirus- and interferon-related effects on human endothelial cells. Cytomegalovirus infection reduces upregulation of HLA class II antigen expression after treatment with interferon-gamma.
ABSTRACT Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEs) were infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strain AD169. Up to 50% HUVEs proved to be positive for HCMV early nuclear antigens 24 hours after inoculation with virus. Following infection kinetics of surface expression of HLA class I and II, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and endothelial lymphocyte adhesion molecule (ELAM-1) on HUVEs were investigated by means of flow cytometry. A slight increase in HLA class I expression was observed, whereas expression of HLA class II (DR, DP, DQ) antigens was not induced by infection with HCMV. Furthermore, when compared with uninfected cells treated with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), reduced enhancement of HLA-DR expression was conspicuous in HCMV-infected cells treated with IFN-gamma. There is evidence that only a portion of HUVE is affected in its ability to upregulate HLA class II antigens. While expression of ICAM-1 was found to be enhanced between 8 and 20 hours after infection with a maximum at 12 hours after infection, no modulation of ELAM-1 was seen.
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ABSTRACT: New active particulate polymeric vectors based on branched polyester copolymers of hydroxy-acid and allyl glycidyl ether were developed to target drugs to the inflammatory endothelial cell surface. The hydroxyl and carboxyl derivatives of these polymers allow grafting of ligand molecules on the polyester backbones at different densities. A known potent nonselective selectin ligand was selected and synthesized using a new scheme. This synthesis allowed the grafting of the ligand to the polyester polymers, preserving its binding activity as assessed by docking simulations. Selectin expression on human umbilical cord vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) was induced with the pro-inflammatory bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or with the nonselective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase L-NAME. Strong adhesion of the ligand decorated nanoparticles was evidenced in vitro on activated HUVEC. Binding of nanoparticles bearing ligand molecules could be efficiently inhibited by prior incubation of cells with free ligand, demonstrating that adhesion of the nanoparticles is mediated by specific interaction between the ligand and the selectin receptors. These nanoparticles could be used for specific drug delivery to the activated vascular endothelium, suggesting their application in the treatment of diseases with an inflammatory component such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer.Bioconjugate Chemistry 10/2008; 19(10):2030-9. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human CMV infection is controlled by T cell-mediated immunity and in immunosuppressed transplant patients it is associated with acute allograft rejection as well as chronic allograft vasculopathy. CMV infects endothelial cells (EC) and it is thought that CMV-specific host immune responses to infected allograft EC contribute to rejection. In vitro, CD4(+) T cells from CMV-positive donors (but not CMV-negative donors) are readily activated by CMV-infected allogeneic EC, although it is unclear how allogeneic CMV-infected EC activate self-class II MHC-restricted memory CD4(+) T cells. In this study, we confirm that purified CD4(+) T cells from CMV(+) donors are activated by allogeneic CMV-infected EC, but find that the response is dependent upon copurified APC expressing class II MHC that are autologous to the T cells. The transfer of CMV Ags from infected EC to APC can be mediated by EC-derived exosome-like particles. These results provide a mechanism by which CMV can exacerbate allograft rejection and suggest a novel function of EC-derived exosomes that could contribute in a more general manner to immune surveillance.The Journal of Immunology 03/2009; 182(3):1548-59. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), which infects the majority of the population worldwide, causes few, if any, symptoms in otherwise healthy people but is responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients and in congenitally infected newborns. The evolutionary success of HCMV depends in part on its ability to evade host defense systems. Here we review recent progress in elucidating the remarkable assortment of mechanisms employed by HCMV and the related beta-herpesviruses, murine cytomegaloviruses (MCMV) and rhesus cytomegaloviruses (RhCMV), for counteracting the host interferon (IFN) response. Very early after infection, cellular membrane sensors such as the lymphotoxin beta receptor initiate the production of antiviral cytokines including type I IFNs. However, virion factors, such as pp65 (ppUL83) and viral proteins made soon after infection including the immediate early gene 2 protein (pUL122), repress this response by interfering with steps in the activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 and NF-kappaB. CMVs then exert a multi-pronged attack on downstream IFN signaling. HCMV infection results in decreased accumulation and phosphorylation of the IFN signaling kinases Jak1 and Stat2, and the MCMV protein pM27 mediates Stat2 down-regulation, blocking both type I and type II IFN signaling. The HCMV immediate early gene 1 protein (pUL123) interacts with Stat2 and inhibits transcriptional activation of IFN-regulated genes. Infection also causes reduction in the abundance of p48/IRF9, a component of the ISGF3 transcription factor complex. Furthermore, CMVs have multiple genes involved in blocking the function of IFN-induced effectors. For example, viral double-stranded RNA-binding proteins are required to prevent the shutoff of protein synthesis by protein kinase R, further demonstrating the vital importance of evading the IFN response at multiple levels during infection.Journal of interferon & cytokine research: the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research 09/2009; 29(9):609-19. · 1.63 Impact Factor