Cytomegalovirus- and interferon-related effects on human endothelial cells. Cytomegalovirus infection reduces upregulation of HLA class II antigen expression after treatment with interferon-gamma.
ABSTRACT Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEs) were infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strain AD169. Up to 50% HUVEs proved to be positive for HCMV early nuclear antigens 24 hours after inoculation with virus. Following infection kinetics of surface expression of HLA class I and II, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and endothelial lymphocyte adhesion molecule (ELAM-1) on HUVEs were investigated by means of flow cytometry. A slight increase in HLA class I expression was observed, whereas expression of HLA class II (DR, DP, DQ) antigens was not induced by infection with HCMV. Furthermore, when compared with uninfected cells treated with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), reduced enhancement of HLA-DR expression was conspicuous in HCMV-infected cells treated with IFN-gamma. There is evidence that only a portion of HUVE is affected in its ability to upregulate HLA class II antigens. While expression of ICAM-1 was found to be enhanced between 8 and 20 hours after infection with a maximum at 12 hours after infection, no modulation of ELAM-1 was seen.
Article: Genetic variability: the key problem in the prevention and therapy of RNA-based virus infections.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Despite extraordinary progress that has recently been made in biomedical sciences, viral infectious diseases still remain one of the most serious world health problems. Among the different types of viruses, those using RNA as their genetic material (RNA viruses and retroviruses) are especially dangerous. At present there is no medicine allowing an effective treatment of RNA-based virus infections. Many RNA viruses and retroviruses need only a few weeks to escape immune response or to produce drug-resistant mutants. This seems to be the obvious consequence of the unusual genetic variability of RNA-based viruses. An individual virus does not form a homogenous population but rather a set of similar but not identical variants. In consequence, RNA-based viruses can easily adapt to environmental changes, also those resulting from immune system response or therapy. The modifications identified within viral genes can be divided into two groups: point mutations and complex genome rearrangements. The former arises mainly during error-prone replication, whereas RNA recombination and generic reassortment are responsible for the latter. This article shortly describes major strategies used to control virus infections. Then, it presents the various mechanisms generating the genetic diversity of RNA-based viruses, which are most probably the main cause of clinical problems.Medicinal Research Reviews 08/2003; 23(4):488-518. · 10.70 Impact Factor
Article: Strain specific effects of cytomegalovirus on endothelial cells: implications for investigating the relationship between CMV and cardiac allograft vasculopathy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been associated with the development of chronic allograft rejection. Attempts to delineate pathogenetic mechanisms for this association have characteristically used well-established laboratory strains for in vitro investigation and rodent strains for in vivo studies. There is substantial genetic heterogeneity not only among different laboratory strains, but also between laboratory strains and clinical isolates, and genetic differences between human and animal strains are profound. Given these genetic differences, one would anticipate differences in biological activity between strains. Vascular endothelial cells were infected with two laboratory strains of CMV (Towne and AD-169) as well as two individual clinical CMV isolates, after genetic typing with six segments of the genome (including early and late genes). mRNA expression coding for a panel of mesenchymal growth factors was studied using quantitative reverse transcription, polymerase chain reaction. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression was investigated using flow cytometry. There was substantial genetic variability between clinical and laboratory isolates. There did not appear to be differences in overall infectivity by the different strains as determined by expression of immediate-early antigen at 24 hours (5-10% of endothelial cells positive for immediate-early. Two growth factors, platelet-derived growth factor-A and basic fibroblast growth factor were augmented by one of the two clinical strains of CMV (Clin 2) (P=0.0091 and P=0.0018, respectively). Transforming growth factor -alpha and insulin-like growth factor expression were significantly reduced by both clinical strains and AD-169. Two other growth factors, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta were not altered by infection with any strain. No strain altered MHC class II expression. MHC class I expression was increased with one of the two clinical strains (Clin 1, P=0.0006) and decreased by AD-169 (P=0.0016). Clin 2 and Towne had no effect on MHC class I expression. These data demonstrate that the genetic heterogeneity of CMV is associated with differences in transplant-relevant biologic activity even among clinical isolates. The relationship between CMV and chronic rejection may be difficult to determine given the heterogeneous nature of this complex virus.Transplantation 12/1999; 68(10):1568-73. · 4.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: New active particulate polymeric vectors based on branched polyester copolymers of hydroxy-acid and allyl glycidyl ether were developed to target drugs to the inflammatory endothelial cell surface. The hydroxyl and carboxyl derivatives of these polymers allow grafting of ligand molecules on the polyester backbones at different densities. A known potent nonselective selectin ligand was selected and synthesized using a new scheme. This synthesis allowed the grafting of the ligand to the polyester polymers, preserving its binding activity as assessed by docking simulations. Selectin expression on human umbilical cord vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) was induced with the pro-inflammatory bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or with the nonselective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase L-NAME. Strong adhesion of the ligand decorated nanoparticles was evidenced in vitro on activated HUVEC. Binding of nanoparticles bearing ligand molecules could be efficiently inhibited by prior incubation of cells with free ligand, demonstrating that adhesion of the nanoparticles is mediated by specific interaction between the ligand and the selectin receptors. These nanoparticles could be used for specific drug delivery to the activated vascular endothelium, suggesting their application in the treatment of diseases with an inflammatory component such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer.Bioconjugate Chemistry 10/2008; 19(10):2030-9. · 4.93 Impact Factor