Cytomegalovirus- and interferon-related effects on human endothelial cells. Cytomegalovirus infection reduces upregulation of HLA class II antigen expression after treatment with interferon-gamma.
ABSTRACT Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEs) were infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strain AD169. Up to 50% HUVEs proved to be positive for HCMV early nuclear antigens 24 hours after inoculation with virus. Following infection kinetics of surface expression of HLA class I and II, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and endothelial lymphocyte adhesion molecule (ELAM-1) on HUVEs were investigated by means of flow cytometry. A slight increase in HLA class I expression was observed, whereas expression of HLA class II (DR, DP, DQ) antigens was not induced by infection with HCMV. Furthermore, when compared with uninfected cells treated with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), reduced enhancement of HLA-DR expression was conspicuous in HCMV-infected cells treated with IFN-gamma. There is evidence that only a portion of HUVE is affected in its ability to upregulate HLA class II antigens. While expression of ICAM-1 was found to be enhanced between 8 and 20 hours after infection with a maximum at 12 hours after infection, no modulation of ELAM-1 was seen.
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ABSTRACT: The human CMV (HCMV) is a persistent virus that may cause severe inflammatory responses especially in immunocompromised hosts. In different cell types, HCMV infection leads to the activation of the pleiotropic transcription factor, NF-κB, which triggers virus replication but also propagates cell-mediated inflammatory mechanisms that largely depend on PG synthesis. We investigated the interactions of HCMV and the NF-κB-dependent PG synthesis pathway in cultures of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells that are known to be infected in HCMV retinitis patients. Unlike in other cell types, HCMV increased neither NF-κB activity nor p65 and p105/50 mRNA levels in RPE cells. Both TNF-α and phorbol ester 12,0-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) enhanced NF-κB activity but only TPA increased HCMV replication. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression and PGE2 release was increased by TPA and TNF-α but not by HCMV infection. Stimulatory activity of TPA on HCMV replication was suppressed by protein kinase C inhibitors and inhibitors of p42/44 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases but not by NF-κB inhibitors. In conclusion, HCMV circumvents the NF-κB route in favor of the protein kinase C-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in RPE cells. This virus/host cell interaction might be a mechanism that promotes HCMV persistence in immune-privileged organs such as the eye.The Journal of Immunology 08/2001; 167(4):1900-1908. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human CMV (HCMV) retinitis frequently leads to blindness in iatrogenically immunosuppressed patients and in the end stage of AIDS. Despite the general proinflammatory potential of HCMV, virus infection is associated with a rather mild cellular inflammatory response in the retina. To investigate this phenomenon, the influence of HCMV (strains AD169 or Hi91) infection on C-X-C chemokine secretion, ICAM-1 expression, and neutrophil recruitment in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells was studied. Supernatants from infected cultures contained enhanced levels of IL-8 and melanoma growth-stimulating activity/Gro a and induced neutrophil chemotaxis compared with supernatants from uninfected RPE cells. Despite HCMV- induced ICAM-1 expression on RPE cells, binding of activated neutrophils to HCMV-infected RPE cells and subsequent trans- epithelial penetration were significantly reduced. Reduced neutrophil adhesion to infected RPE cells correlated with HCMV- induced up-regulation of constitutive Fas ligand (FasL) expression. Functional blocking of FasL on RPE cells with the neutralizing mAbs NOK-1 and NOK-2 or of the Fas receptor on neutrophils with mAbB-D29 prevented the HCMV-induced impairment of neutrophil/RPE interactions. Fas-FasL-dependent impairment of neutrophil binding had occurred by 10 min after neutrophil/ RPE coculture without apoptotic signs. Neutrophil apoptosis was first detected after 4 h. Treatment of neutrophils with a specific inhibitor of caspase-8 suppressed apoptosis, whereas it did not prevent impaired neutrophil binding to infected RPE. The current results suggest a novel role for FasL in the RPE regulation of neutrophil binding. This may be an important feature of virus escape mechanisms and for sustaining the immune-privileged character of the retina during HCMV ocular infection. The Journal of Immunology, 2000, 165: 4405- 4413.The Journal of Immunology 10/2000; 165(8). · 5.52 Impact Factor