Cytomegalovirus- and interferon-related effects on human endothelial cells. Cytomegalovirus infection reduces upregulation of HLA class II antigen expression after treatment with interferon-gamma.
ABSTRACT Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEs) were infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strain AD169. Up to 50% HUVEs proved to be positive for HCMV early nuclear antigens 24 hours after inoculation with virus. Following infection kinetics of surface expression of HLA class I and II, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and endothelial lymphocyte adhesion molecule (ELAM-1) on HUVEs were investigated by means of flow cytometry. A slight increase in HLA class I expression was observed, whereas expression of HLA class II (DR, DP, DQ) antigens was not induced by infection with HCMV. Furthermore, when compared with uninfected cells treated with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), reduced enhancement of HLA-DR expression was conspicuous in HCMV-infected cells treated with IFN-gamma. There is evidence that only a portion of HUVE is affected in its ability to upregulate HLA class II antigens. While expression of ICAM-1 was found to be enhanced between 8 and 20 hours after infection with a maximum at 12 hours after infection, no modulation of ELAM-1 was seen.
- SourceAvailable from: Mark T Heise[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Macrophage (Mφ) activation, as measured by cell surface expression of MHC class II, was examined during infection of immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). Intraperitoneal infection of CB17 SCID mice with 106PFU of MCMV elicited a large population of Mφ which expressed low levels of MHC class II. This was surprising since infection of SCID mice with lower doses (e.g., 104PFU) of MCMV elicits Mφ expressing high levels of MHC class II (M. T. Heise and H. W. Virgin,J. Virol.(1995) 69, 904–909).In vivoadministration of recombinant mouse IFNγ resulted in high levels of MHC class II expression on Mφ from control but not MCMV-infected SCID mice, suggesting that MCMV infection generates a state in which IFNγ is not effective at activating Mφ. The effect of MCMV infection was MHC class II specific, since MHC class I and ICAM-1 levels were increased on Mφ expressing low levels of MHC class II. Interference with IFNγ action was not due to productive or abortive infection of Mφ. This suggested that MCMV infection induces a soluble factor that alters Mφ responsiveness to IFNγ. Infection of SCID mice with 106PFU of MCMV induced higher levels of serum IFNαβ (one candidate for inhibition of IFNγ induction of MHC class II expression) than infection with 104PFU. We therefore evaluated the role of MCMV-induced IFNαβ on IFNγ responses of bone marrow-derived (BMMφ) or thioglycollate-elicited Mφin vitro.Infection of normal Mφ with MCMV at a low m.o.i. (0.1 to 0.2) impaired IFNγ-mediated induction of Mφ MHC class II expression, but not MHC class I expression. Inhibition of IFNγ responses was not observed in Mφ from mice with a null mutation in the IFNαβ receptor (IFNαβR−/−). To test thein vivorelevance of virus-induced IFNαβ to IFNγ-mediated responses, the kinetics of MHC class II induction during MCMV infection of IFNαβR−/− mice was evaluated. MCMV-infected IFNαβR−/− mice mounted an earlier Mφ MHC class II response than normal mice. We conclude that MCMV infection specifically impairs IFNγ-mediated MHC class II expression on Mφ and that induction of IFNαβ is one mechanism by which this inhibition occurs.Virology. 02/1998;
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection of endothelial cells resulted in increased adhesion of the cells to peripheral blood leukocytes. It was demonstrated by flow cytometry that increased adhesiveness parallels the increased expression of cell surface adhesion molecules (ELAM-1, ICAM-1, VCAM-1). The increased adhesion of PMN and T-lymphocytes was due to upregulation in the expression of ELAM-1 and ICAM-1. The upregulation of VCAM-1 resulted in the increased adhesiveness of monocytes and T-lymphocytes to HCMV-infected HUVEC. The increased adhesiveness to leukocytes was caused by HCMV replication since endothelial cells exposed to HCMV-free supernatants and UV-inactivated HCMV did not show any increase in adhesiveness to any of the leukocytes tested.Microbiology and Immunology 02/1997; 41(2):121-9. · 1.55 Impact Factor