Melanocyte-stimulating properties of arachidonic acid metabolites: possible role in postinflammatory pigmentation.
ABSTRACT Normal human epidermal melanocytes became swollen and more dendritic with an increase in the amount of tyrosinase and immunoreactive b-locus protein when they were cultured for 2 days with the following arachidonic acid metabolites: prostaglandin (PG) D2, leukotriene (LT) B4, LTC4, LTD4, LTE4, thromboxane (TX) B2 and 12-hydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE). The effect of LTC4 was particularly strong compared to that of PGE2, about which we have previously reported. On the other hand, PGE1, PGF2 alpha and 6-ketoPGF1 alpha did not show any significant stimulatory effect. These data suggest that arachidonate-derived chemical mediators, especially LTC4, may be responsible for the induction of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation of the skin.
International Journal of Pharmacology 08/2013; 9(8):524-532. DOI:10.3923/ijp.2013.524.532 · 0.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ultraviolet light (UV) induces an inflammatory response in the skin by cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and prostaglandin (PG) E2 production. Citrus peel has been used as a natural medicine. It contains polymethoxyflavonoids (PMFs) as a major ingredient, which have anti-inflammatory activity. We obtained orange peel extract containing high levels of PMFs. The extract suppressed UVB-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in HaCaT cells. Furthermore, it was found that this extract acted as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonist. The suppression of UVB-induced COX-2 expression by this extract was inhibited by GW 9662 and T0070907, which are both PPAR-γ antagonists. It is therefore suggested that orange peel extract, containing high levels of PMFs, suppresses UVB-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production through PPAR-γ. Hence, these extracts could provide useful protection against or alleviation of UV damage.Experimental Dermatology 10/2014; 23(s1). DOI:10.1111/exd.12394 · 4.12 Impact Factor