Body weight and coronary heart disease mortality: an analysis in relation to age and smoking habit. 15 years follow-up data from the Whitehall Study.
ABSTRACT 18,403 male civil servants aged 40-64 years were examined in London between 1968 and 1970. Mortality from all causes and specifically from coronary heart disease (CHD) over 15 years of follow-up was initially analysed in relation to deciles of body mass index (BMI = weight/height2) at entry into the study. In older men all causes mortality tended to be higher in those with a low BMI, but this was not so for CHD mortality. The latter was further studied after dividing the population into sub-groups according to age and cigarette smoking. With BMI distribution divided into fifths and five year age groups there were significant positive trends of CHD mortality across the BMI distribution in all age groups except the youngest (40-44 years) and oldest (60-64 years). For analysis by smoking category--never, ex- and current cigarette smoker--three age-specific groups were used: 40-49, 50-59 and 60-64 years. In men aged less than 60 years there were significant positive trends of CHD mortality and BMI in five of the six age and smoking categories, the exception being ex-smokers aged 40-49 years. Associations were strongest in the current smokers. By contrast in men aged 60-64 years there was a significant association between BMI and CHD mortality only in ex-smokers and this was of low order (P = 0.04). The data are compatible with some reports of a lesser association of obesity with mortality risk in older persons and in this data set the observation is not confounded by smoking habit.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this review is to present the current knowledge regarding stroke. It will appear in three parts (in part II the pathogenesis, investigations, and prognosis will be presented, while part III will consist of the management and rehabilitation). In the current part (I) the definitions of the clinical picture are presented. These include: amaurosis fugax, vertebrobasilar transient ischemic attack, and stroke (with good recovery, in evolution and complete). The role of the following risk factors is discussed in detail: age, gender, ethnicity, heredity, hypertension, cigarette smoking, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, obesity, fibrinogen and clotting factors, oral contraceptives, erythrocytosis and hematocrit level, prior cerebrovascular and other diseases, physical inactivity, diet and alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, and genetic predisposition. In particular, regarding the carotid arteries, the following characteristics are analyzed: atheroma, carotid plaque echomorphology, carotid stenosis, presence of ulcer, local variations in surface deforma bility, pathological characteristics, and dissection. Finally the significance of the cerebral collateral circulation and the conditions predisposing to cardioembolism and to cerebral hemorrhage are presented.Angiology 10/2000; 51(10):793-808. DOI:10.1177/000331970005101001 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obesity is a medical condition characterized by accumulation of excess body fat leading to negative health consequences and reduced life expectancy. The latter could be attributed to various diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer and osteoarthritis. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate obesity, appraised by BMI, in the Raipur District of Chhattisgarh State, India. A multiphase stratified random sampling method was performed on 688 adults of both sexes, with mean age 34yrs ± 16, from June to September 2011. Anthropometric measurements were recorded using standard instruments (weight scale and stadiometer). BMI was calculated using the statistical software SPSS version 20.0. The results divulged 19.91% of the adults to be overweight and 57% of them as obese. Amongst the male subjects, 23.55% and 7.97 %; and in case of females, 17.47% and 8.90 % were marked as overweight and obese respectively. As evident from the results, 8.5% were obese and another 20% are being overweight which could lead to future obesity, which is significantly associated with increased likelihoods of having depressive symptoms and an array of other cardiac diseases. Thus, lifestyle and mental health status could well be monitored and evaluated in the obese and overweight subjects in order to prevent the several disorders associated with obesity.
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ABSTRACT: The question of whether the range of recommended body weights should remain the same throughout adulthood or should be more liberal (higher) in older adults has been extremely controversial. Much of the debate has centered on methodologic issues including sources of confounding and the precision of risk estimates. These methodologic issues are reviewed, and studies that compare the body mass index (BMI)-mortality relationship within appropriate age strata are summarized. Several studies have attempted to control for major confounders, but were too small in size to produce comparisons across age groups. Only three studies had as many as 400 deaths in each age group, and only one of those attempted to control for confounding variables. This study, a recent analysis of the Cancer Prevention Study-I, combined attention to possible confounding variables with the statistical power that comes from a large sample. The analysis indicated that the optimum 12-year survival was associated with a lean BMI (19-21.9) between the ages of 30 and 74 years. After 74 years, the optimum BMI was considerably higher. This study had several limitations and its generalizability is restricted, but nevertheless, it offers the best evidence to date on the impact of age on the BMI-mortality association. New studies are needed that control for possible confounding factors and include repeated measures of weight and height, and perhaps other indicators of body composition and fat distribution, over a long period of follow-up.The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 01/1998; 9(9). DOI:10.1016/S0955-2863(98)00012-6 · 4.59 Impact Factor