Atypical hyperplasia: a morphologic risk factor for subsequent development of invasive breast carcinoma.
Department of Gynecologic and Breast Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC 20306.Cancer Investigation (Impact Factor: 2.06). 02/1992; 10(5):433-41. DOI: 10.3109/07357909209024801
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of our study was to establish whether it might be safe for women with a diagnosis of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) at stereotactically guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy without any residual microcalcification after the procedure to undergo mammographic follow-up instead of surgical biopsy. From October 2003 to January 2009, 1173 consecutive 11-gauge vacuum-assisted breast biopsy procedures were performed. ADH was found in the specimens of 114 patients who underwent vacuum-assisted breast biopsy for a single cluster of suspicious microcalcifications smaller than 15 mm; 49 had residual microcalcifications, and 65 had microcalcifications completely removed by the procedure. Of 49 patients with residual microcalcifications, 41 underwent surgical biopsy. Of 65 patients without residual microcalcifications, 26 underwent surgical biopsy, 35 were not surgically treated and were managed conservatively with mammographic follow-up, and 4 had follow-up of less than 24 months. In 41 patients with residual microcalcifications who underwent surgical biopsy, 8 malignant lesions were found at surgery. The underestimation rate was 20% (8/41). In 26 patients without residual microcalcifications who underwent surgical biopsy, no malignant lesions were found. One malignant lesion was found in the 35 patients managed conservatively at follow-up. The underestimation rate in patients without residual microcalcifications using surgical biopsy or mammographic follow-up as the reference standard was 1.6% (1/61). Patients without residual microcalcifications after vacuum-assisted breast biopsy could possibly be managed in a conservative way with mammographic follow-up.American Journal of Roentgenology 10/2011; 197(4):1012-8. DOI:10.2214/AJR.11.6588 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mammary glands are unique to mammals, with the specific function of synthesizing, secreting, and delivering milk to the newborn. Given this function, it is only during a pregnancy/lactation cycle that the gland reaches a mature developmental state via hormonal influences at the cellular level that effect drastic modifications in the micro- and macro-anatomy of the gland, resulting in remodeling of the gland into a milk-secretory organ. Pubertal and post-pubertal development of the breast in females aids in preparing it to assume a functional state during pregnancy and lactation. Remarkably, this organ has the capacity to regress to a resting state upon cessation of lactation, and then undergo the same cycle of expansion and regression again in subsequent pregnancies during reproductive life. This plasticity suggests tight hormonal regulation, which is paramount for the normal function of the gland. This review presents the current status of knowledge of the normal macro- and micro-anatomy of the human mammary gland and the distinct changes it undergoes during the key developmental stages that characterize it, from embryonic life through to post-menopausal age. In addition, it discusses recent advances in our understanding of the normal function of the breast during lactation, with special reference to breastmilk, its composition, and how it can be utilized as a tool to advance knowledge on normal and aberrant breast development and function. Finally, anatomical and molecular traits associated with aberrant expansion of the breast are discussed to set the basis for future comparisons that may illuminate the origin of breast cancer. Clin. Anat. Clin. Anat. 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Clinical Anatomy 01/2013; 26(1). DOI:10.1002/ca.22165 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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