Transforming growth factor-alpha gene expression in the hypothalamus is developmentally regulated and linked to sexual maturation.
ABSTRACT Hypothalamic injury causes female sexual precocity by activating luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons, which control sexual development. Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) has been implicated in this process, but its involvement in normal sexual maturation is unknown. The present study addresses this issue. TGF-alpha mRNA and protein were found mostly in astroglia, in regions of the hypothalamus concerned with LHRH control. Hypothalamic TGF-alpha mRNA levels increased at times when secretion of pituitary gonadotropins--an LHRH-dependent event--was elevated, particularly at the time of puberty. Gonadal steroids involved in the control of LHRH secretion increased TGF-alpha mRNA levels. Blockade of TGF-alpha action in the median eminence, a site of glial-LHRH nerve terminal association, delayed puberty. These results suggest that TGF-alpha of glial origin is a component of the developmental program by which the brain controls mammalian sexual maturation.
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ABSTRACT: Genistein is known to influence reproductive system development through its binding affinity for estrogen receptors. The present study aimed to further explore the effect of Genistein on the development of the reproductive system of experimental rats. Eighteen post-weaning female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: (i) a control group that received vehicle (distilled water and Tween 80); (ii) a group treated with 10 mg/kg body weight (BW) of Genistein (Gen 10); and (iii) a group treated with a higher dose of Genistein (Gen 100). The rats were treated daily for three weeks from postnatal day 22 (P22) to P42. After the animals were sacrificed, blood samples were collected, and the uteri and ovaries were harvested and subjected to light microscopy and immunohistochemical study. A reduction of the mean weekly BW gain and organ weights (uteri and ovaries) were observed in the Gen 10 group compared to the control group; these findings were reversed in the Gen 100 group. Follicle stimulating hormone and estrogen levels were increased in the Gen 10 group and reduced in the Gen 100 group. Luteinizing hormone was reduced in both groups of Genistein-treated animals, and there was a significant difference between the Gen 10 and control groups (p<0.05). These findings were consistent with increased atretic follicular count, a decreased number of corpus luteum and down-regulation of estrogen receptors-a in the uterine tissues of the Genistein-treated animals compared to the control animals. Post-weaning exposure to Genistein could affect the development of the reproductive system of ovarian-intact experimental rats because of its action on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by regulating hormones and estrogen receptors.Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil) 01/2013; 68(2):253-62. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reproduction is integrated by interaction of neural and hormonal signals converging on hypothalamic neurons for controlling gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Kisspeptin, the peptide product of the kiss1 gene and the endogenous agonist for the GRP54 receptor, plays a key role in the regulation of GnRH secretion. In the present study, we investigated the interaction between kisspeptin, estrogen and BMPs in the regulation of GnRH production by using mouse hypothalamic GT1-7 cells. Treatment with kisspeptin increased GnRH mRNA expression and GnRH protein production in a concentration-dependent manner. The expression levels of kiss1 and GPR54 were not changed by kisspeptin stimulation. Kisspeptin induction of GnRH was suppressed by co-treatment with BMPs, with BMP-4 action being the most potent for suppressing the kisspeptin effect. The expression of kisspeptin receptor, GPR54, was suppressed by BMPs, and this effect was reversed in the presence of kisspeptin. It was also revealed that BMP-induced Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and Id-1 expression were suppressed and inhibitory Smad6/7 was induced by kisspeptin. In addition, estrogen induced GPR54 expression, while kisspeptin increased the expression levels of ERα and ERβ, suggesting that the actions of estrogen and kisspeptin are mutually enhanced in GT1-7 cells. Moreover, kisspeptin stimulated MAPKs and AKT signaling, and ERK signaling was functionally involved in the kisspeptin-induced GnRH expression. BMP-4 was found to suppress kisspeptin-induced GnRH expression by reducing ERK signaling activity. Collectively, the results indicate that the axis of kisspeptin-induced GnRH production is bi-directionally controlled, being augmented by an interaction between ERα/β and GPR54 signaling and suppressed by BMP-4 action in GT1-7 neuron cells. (254 words).Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 07/2013; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Brain vasculature forms the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that restricts the movement of molecules between the brain and blood, but the capillary of the median eminence (ME) lacks the BBB for secretion of adenohypophysial hormone-releasing peptides. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate whether continuous angiogenesis occurs in the ME of adult mice. By using a mitotic marker, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), we demonstrated that new endothelial cells were born continuously in the ME of adults. Prominent expression of NG2, platelet-derived growth factor receptor B (PDGFRB), and delta-like ligand 4 was observed at pericytes of adults, although the expression of these angiogenesis-associated proteins has been shown to be at low or trace levels in adult mature capillary. In addition, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a key regulator of angiogenesis, was expressed highly in the nervous parenchyma of the ME. Expression of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) was observed at endothelial cells in the external zone and at somatodendrites in the internal zone. Finally, a VEGFR- and PDGFR-associated tyrosine kinase inhibitor, SU11248, significantly decreased the number of BrdU-positive proliferating endothelial cells and parenchyma cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates VEGF-dependent continuous angiogenesis in the ME of adult mouse brains under normal conditions, which provides new insight into our understanding of neurosecretion in the ME.European Journal of Neuroscience 11/2012; · 3.75 Impact Factor