Cytochrome aa3 of Rhodobacter sphaeroides as a model for mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase. Purification, kinetics, proton pumping, and spectral analysis.

Department of Biochemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.65). 01/1993; 267(34):24264-72.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Aerobically grown Rhodobacter sphaeroides synthesizes a respiratory chain similar to that of eukaryotes. We describe the purification of the aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase of Rb. sphaeroides as a highly active (Vmax > or = 1800 s-1), three-subunit enzyme from isolated, washed cytoplasmic membranes by hydroxylapatite chromatography and anion exchange fast protein liquid chromatography. The purified oxidase exhibits biphasic kinetics of oxidation of mammalian cytochrome c, similar to mitochondrial oxidases, and pumps protons efficiently (H+/e- = 0.7) following reconstitution into phospholipid vesicles. A membrane-bound cytochrome c is associated with the aa3-type oxidase in situ, but is removed during purification. The EPR spectra of the Rb. sphaeroides enzyme suggest the presence of a strong hydrogen bond to one or both of the histidine ligands of heme a. In other respects, optical, EPR, and resonance Raman analyses of the metal centers and their protein environments demonstrate a close correspondence between the bacterial enzyme and the structurally more complex bovine cytochrome c oxidase. The results establish this bacterial oxidase as an excellent model system for the mammalian enzyme and provide the basis for site-directed mutational analysis of its energy transducing function.

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    ABSTRACT: A conserved, crystallographically-defined bile acid binding site was originally identified in the membrane domain of mammalian and bacterial cytochrome c oxidase (CcO). Current studies show other amphipathic molecules including detergents, fatty acids, steroids, and porphyrins bind to this site and affect the already 50% inhibited activity of the E101A mutant of Rhodobacter sphaeroides CcO, as well as altering the activity of wildtype and bovine enzymes. Dodecyl maltoside, Triton X100, C12E8, lysophophatidylcholine and CHOBIMALT detergents further inhibit RsCcO E101A, with lesser inhibition observed in wildtype. The detergent inhibition is overcome in the presence of µM concentrations of steroids and porphyrin analogs including deoxycholate, cholesteryl hemisuccinate, bilirubin, and protoporphyrin IX. In addition to alleviating detergent inhibition, amphipathic carboxylates including arachidonic, docosahexanoic, and phytanic acids stimulate the activity of E101A to wildtype levels by providing the missing carboxyl group. Computational modeling of dodecyl maltoside, bilirubin, and protoporphyrin IX into the conserved steroid site shows energetically favorable binding modes for these ligands and suggests that a groove at the interface of subunit I and II, including the entrance to the K-path and helix VIII of subunit I, mediates the observed competitive ligand interactions involving two overlapping sites. Spectral analysis indicates that ligand binding to this region affects CcO activity by altering the K-path dependent electron transfer equilibrium between heme a and heme a3. The high affinity and specificity of a number of compounds for this region, and its conservation and impact on CcO activity, support its physiological significance.
    Biochemistry 01/2013; · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A conserved bile acid site has been crystallographically defined in the membrane domain of mammalian and Rhodobacter sphaeroides cytochrome c oxidase (RsCcO). Diverse amphipathic ligands were shown previously to bind to this site and affect the electron transfer equilibrium between heme a and a3 cofactors by blocking the K proton uptake path. Current studies identify physiologically relevant ligands for the bile acid site using a novel three-pronged computational approach: ROCS comparison of ligand shape and electrostatics, SimSite3D comparison of ligand binding site features, and SLIDE screening of potential ligands by docking. Identified candidate ligands include steroids, nicotinamides, flavins, nucleotides, retinoic acid, and thyroid hormones, which are predicted to make key protein contacts with the residues involved in bile acid binding. In vitro oxygen consumption and ligand competition assays on RsCcO wildtype and its Glu101Ala mutant support regulatory activity and specificity of some of these ligands. An ATP analog and GDP inhibit RsCcO under low substrate conditions, while fusidic acid, cholesteryl hemisuccinate, retinoic acid, and T3 thyroid hormone are more potent inhibitors under both high and low substrate conditions. The sigmoidal kinetics of RsCcO inhibition in the presence of certain nucleotides is reminiscent of previously reported ATP inhibition of mammalian CcO, suggesting regulation involving the conserved core subunits of both mammalian and bacterial oxidases. Ligand binding to the bile acid site is noncompetitive with respect to cytochrome c and appears to arrest CcO in a semioxidized state with some resemblance to the "resting" state of the enzyme.
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    ABSTRACT: The homeostasis of the pyridine nucleotide pool [NAD(P)H and NAD(P)] is maintained in Rhodobacter sphaeroides mutant strains defective in the cytochrome bci complex or the cytochrome c oxidases in terms of its concentration and redox state. Aerobic derepression of the puf operon, which is under the control of the PrrBA two-component system, in the CBB3 mutant strain of R. sphaeroides was shown to be not the result of changes in the redox state of the pyridine nucleotides and the ubiquinone/ubiquinol pool. Using the bc complex knock-out mutant strain of R. sphaeroides, we clearly demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of cbb, oxidase on spectral complex formation is not caused indirectly by the redox change of the ubiquinone/ubiquinol pool.
    Journal of Life Science. 01/2009; 19(7).

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