A comparison study of treated and untreated pregnant and postpartum cocaine abusing women

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment (Impact Factor: 3.14). 02/1992; 9(4):343-8. DOI: 10.1016/0740-5472(92)90029-N
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study was to determine whether untreated pregnant and recently post-partum cocaine-abusing women could be differentiated from women who enrolled in drug treatment programs. The experimental sample was selected from women referred to the Georgia Addiction, Pregnancy, and Parenting Project, an intervention program for pregnant and postpartum addicted women, between January 1987 and January 1988 (n = 45). The comparison group was randomly selected from women who were admitted to two (2) day treatment programs during the same time period (n = 50). Groups were compared using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and the Psychiatric Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90). Results indicated that untreated women were less impaired socially and exhibited fewer symptoms of psychiatric distress. These findings confirm the commonly held belief that the severity of psychosocial distress may be an important motivating factor in the decision to enter drug treatment. Alternatively, the lack of gender-sensitive program components, such as childcare, and the social stigma attached to drug use in pregnancy may also account for the reluctance of pregnant and post-partum mothers to seek drug treatment. Implications for the development of intervention and treatment programs for women are discussed.

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Available from: Claire Coles, Mar 04, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Approximately 200 million people, 5% aged 15-64 worldwide are illicit drug or substance abusers (World Drug Report, 2006). Between 2002 and 2005, an average of 8.2% of 12 year olds and older in the Miami, Fort Lauderdale metropolitan areas used illicit drugs (SAMHSA, 2007). Eight percent of pregnant women, aged 15 to 25, were more likely to have used illicit drugs during pregnancy than pregnant women aged 26 to 44. Alcohol use was 9.8% and cigarette use was 18% for pregnant women aged 15 to 44 (SAMHSA, 2005).Approximately a quarter of annual birth defects are attributed to the exposure of drugs or substance abuse in utero (General Accounting Office, 1991). Physical, psychological and emotional challenges may be present for the illicit drug/substance abuse (ID/SA) mother and infant placing them at a disadvantage early in their relationship (Shonkoff & Marshall, 1990). Mothers with low self efficacy have insecurely attached infants (Donovan, Leavitt, & Walsh, 1987). As the ID/SA mother struggles with wanting to be a good parent, education is needed to help her care for her infant.In this experimental study residential rehabilitating ID/SA mothers peer taught infant massage. Massage builds bonding/attachment between mother and infant (Reese & Storm, 2008) and peer teaching is effective because participants have faced similar challenges and speak the same language (Boud, Cohen, & Sampson 2001). Quantitative data were collected using the General Self-Efficacy and Maternal Attachment Inventory-Revised Scale before and after the 4-week intervention program. A reported result of this study was that empowering ID/SA mothers increased their self-efficacy, which in turn allowed the mothers to tackle challenges encountered and created feelings of being a fit mother to their infants.This research contributes to the existing database promoting evidence-based practice in drug rehabilitation centers. Healthcare personnel, such as nurse educators and maternal-child health practitioners, can develop programs in drug rehabilitation centers that cultivate an environment where the ID/SA rehabilitating mothers can peer teach each other, while creating a support system. Using infant massage as a therapeutic tool can develop a healthy infant and nurture a more positive relationship between mother and infant.
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