Randomised controlled trial of effect of fish-oil supplementation on pregnancy duration.
ABSTRACT The high birthweights and long duration of pregnancy in the Faroe Islands led us to suggest that a high intake of marine-fat-derived n-3 fatty acids might prolong pregnancy by shifting the balance of production of prostaglandins involved in parturition. We have compared the effects on pregnancy duration, birthweight, and birth length of a fish-oil supplement, a control olive-oil supplement, and no supplementation. 533 healthy Danish women in week 30 of pregnancy were randomly assigned in a ratio of 2/1/1 to fish oil (four 1 g Pikasol capsules [containing 2.7 g n-3 fatty acids] per day), olive oil (four 1 g capsules per day), or no supplement. The three groups differed in mean length of gestation (p = 0.006), which was highest in the fish-oil group and lowest in the olive-oil group; the result was similar when the analysis was restricted to women with an estimate of gestation length based on early ultrasound findings (443 women). Pregnancies in the fish-oil group were on average 4.0 (95% confidence interval 1.5-6.4) days longer than those in the olive-oil group; the difference in birthweight was 107 (1-214) g. The effect of supplementation on length of gestation was influenced by intake of fish and of fish oil: the difference between fish-oil and other groups was increased by a low fish intake at baseline. Fish-oil supplementation in the third trimester seems to prolong pregnancy without detrimental effects on the growth of the fetus or on the course of labour.
- SourceAvailable from: Bhupendar Khatkar[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Trans fatty acids have the presence of one or more double bonds in the trans configuration instead of the usual cis configuration. They are desired by Vanaspati industry as they impart firmness to margarines and plasticity as well as emulsion stability to shortenings. Research has proved the direct connection of trans fatty acids with cardiovascular diseases, breast cancer, shortening of pregnancy period, risks of preeclampsia, disorders of nervous system and vision in infants, colon cancer, diabetes, obesity and allergy. In light of these new findings trans fatty intake should be zero and new technology of hydrogenation of oils is to be developed which produce zero trans fatty acids at the same time preserve the desirable properties contributed by trans fatty acids to the hydrogenated oils. Presently in India there is no system to monitor and regulate the amount of trans fats in processed foods and hence a stringent food law is immediately required.Journal of Food Science and Technology -Mysore- 06/2014; 48(5):534-41. DOI:10.1007/s13197-010-0225-8 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Good sow reproductive performance and piglet survival are essential for the profitability of the pig industry. Based on basic research of fatty acid and endocrine metabolism, it has been suggested that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could enhance reproductive outcome. However, proper requirements for these nutrients in sow diets have not been established. This review examines the literature on the effect of n-3 PUFA in the maternal diet on sow reproduction and piglet performance. Few reported studies have included biochemical analyses, e.g. eicosanoid concentrations or gene expression data, which could help elucidate any link between dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation and reproduction. Additionally, most studies used relatively low numbers of pigs, limiting the validity of the conclusions which can be drawn. In pregnant pigs, supplementing with n-3 PUFA has not been shown to increase significantly the number of embryos (in gilts) or (in most studies) the total number of piglets born (live and/or stillborn), but may prolong gestation, although the literature is not consistent. Most studies found no effect of n-3 PUFA on piglet birth weight, although positive effects on piglet vitality and pre- and post-weaning growth have been reported. In contrast to the impact during pregnancy, low amounts of n-3 PUFA in the lactation diet may increase litter size in the subsequent gestation.The Veterinary Journal 05/2013; 197(3). DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.03.051 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effects, on the maternal mammary gland, of diets containing similar lipid percentages but differing in composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been assessed in rats during pregnancy and lactation. For this purpose, tuna fish oil (an n-3-PUFA-enriched oil) and corn oil (an n-6-PUFA-enriched oil) were included in diets at ratios such that the caloric inputs were the same as that of the control diet. As expected, the maternal diet affected the tissue composition of dams. Unexpectedly, only the tuna fish oil diet had an effect on pup growth, being associated with the pups being underweight between the ages of 11 and 21 days. The maternal mammary gland of rats fed the tuna fish oil diet displayed two main modifications: the size of cytoplasmic lipid droplets was increased when compared with those in control rats and the mammary epithelium showed an unusual formation of multilayers of cells. These results show that the tuna fish oil diet, during pregnancy and lactation, exerts specific effects on mammary cells and on the formation of lipid droplets. They suggest that this maternal diet affects the functioning of the mammary tissue.Cell and Tissue Research 11/2012; DOI:10.1007/s00441-012-1523-4 · 3.33 Impact Factor