Regulation of excitatory amino acid release by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in rat striatum: in vivo microdialysis studies.
ABSTRACT The microdialysis technique was utilized to study the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor ligands on the in vivo release of endogenous glutamate (Glu) and aspartate (Asp) from the rat striatum. Addition of NMDA (250 and 500 microM) to the dialysis perfusion solution resulted in a striking dose-dependent increase in extracellular concentrations of Glu and Asp in the striatum. The NMDA-induced effects were reduced in a dose-related way by prior perfusion with 75 microM dizocilpine (MK-801), a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist. MK-801, at 75 microM, produced no changes on basal levels of Glu and Asp. However, 100 microM MK-801 did increase Glu and Asp extracellular concentrations. Local infusion with 500 microM D-serine, an agonist at the glycine site associated to the NMDA receptor, significantly increased basal level of Glu, but not Asp. Such D-serine-induced effects were reduced by 7-Cl-kynurenic acid (200 microM), a selective blocker of the glycine site present in the NMDA receptor. It is proposed that activation of NMDA receptors by endogenous Glu and Asp enhances the subsequent release of these excitatory amino acids in the striatum. Part of these NMDA receptors might be located presynaptically on cortico-striatal nerve endings. In addition, postsynaptic NMDA receptors present in the striatum may also indirectly modulate the release of Glu and Asp, through trans-synaptic mechanism.
Article: The effects of ammonia and portal-systemic shunting on brain metabolism, neurotransmission and intracranial hypertension in hyperammonaemia-induced encephalopathy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The pathogenetic factors contributing to encephalopathy in portacaval shunted rats with hyperammonaemia were studied. Hyperammonaemia was induced by ammonium-acetate infusions in portacaval shunted rats (2.8 mmol.kg bw-1.h-1; AI-portacaval shunted rats) and in sham-portacaval shunted rats (6.5 mmol.kg bw-1.h-1; AI-NORM rats). Severity of encephalopathy was quantified by clinical grading and EEG spectral analysis. Changes in brain metabolites were assessed by amino acid analysis of brain cortex homogenates, whereas changes in amino acids with neurotransmitter activity were assessed in cerebrospinal fluid; brain water content was measured by subtracting dry from wet brain weights and intracranial pressure was measured by a pressure transducer connected to a cisterna magna cannula. Although similar increased blood and brain ammonia concentrations were obtained in both experimental groups, only AI-portacaval shunted rats developed encephalopathy, associated with a significant increase in intracranial pressure. Other significant differences were: higher concentrations of brain glutamine and aromatic amino acids, higher concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid glutamine, aromatic amino acids, glutamate and aspartate in AI-portacaval shunted rats than in AI-NORM rats. These results indicate that hyperammonaemia alone dose not induce encephalopathy, whereas portal-systemic shunting adds an essential contribution to the pathogenesis of encephalopathy. It is hypothesised that the larger increase in brain glutamine in AI-portacaval shunted rats than in AI-NORM rats is responsible for increased brain concentrations of aromatic amino acids, for cell swelling and for extracellular release of glutamate and aspartate. This might promote encephalopathy. If cell swelling is not restricted, intracranial hypertension will develop.Journal of Hepatology 03/1997; 26(2):387-95. · 9.26 Impact Factor
Article: Presynaptic NMDA receptors mediate IPSC potentiation at GABAergic synapses in developing rat neocortex.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: NMDA receptors are traditionally viewed as being located postsynaptically, at both synaptic and extrasynaptic locations. However, both anatomical and physiological studies have indicated the presence of NMDA receptors located presynaptically. Physiological studies of presynaptic NMDA receptors on neocortical GABAergic terminals and their possible role in synaptic plasticity are lacking. We report here that presynaptic NMDA receptors are present on GABAergic terminals in developing (postnatal day (PND) 12-15) but not older (PND21-25) rat frontal cortex. Using MK-801 in the recording pipette to block postsynaptic NMDA receptors, evoked and miniature IPSCs were recorded in layer II/III pyramidal cells in the presence of AMPA/KA receptor antagonists. Bath application of NMDA or NMDA receptor antagonists produced increases and decreases in mIPSC frequency, respectively. Physiologically patterned stimulation (10 bursts of 10 stimuli at 25 Hz delivered at 1.25 Hz) induced potentiation at inhibitory synapses in PND12-15 animals. This consisted of an initial rapid, large increase in IPSC amplitude followed by a significant but smaller persistent increase. Similar changes were not observed in PND21-25 animals. When 20 mM BAPTA was included in the recording pipette, potentiation was still observed in the PND12-15 group indicating that postsynaptic increases in calcium were not required. Potentiation was not observed when patterned stimulation was given in the presence of D-APV or the NR2B subunit antagonist Ro25-6981. The present results indicate that presynaptic NMDA receptors modulate GABA release onto neocortical pyramidal cells. Presynaptic NR2B subunit containing NMDA receptors are also involved in potentiation at developing GABAergic synapses in rat frontal cortex. Modulation of inhibitory GABAergic synapses by presynaptic NMDA receptors may be important for proper functioning of local cortical networks during development.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(2):e17311. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Presynaptic ionotropic receptors controlling and modulating the rules for spike timing-dependent plasticity.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Throughout life, activity-dependent changes in neuronal connection strength enable the brain to refine neural circuits and learn based on experience. In line with predictions made by Hebb, synapse strength can be modified depending on the millisecond timing of action potential firing (STDP). The sign of synaptic plasticity depends on the spike order of presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons. Ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors, such as NMDA receptors and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, are intimately involved in setting the rules for synaptic strengthening and weakening. In addition, timing rules for STDP within synapses are not fixed. They can be altered by activation of ionotropic receptors located at, or close to, synapses. Here, we will highlight studies that uncovered how network actions control and modulate timing rules for STDP by activating presynaptic ionotropic receptors. Furthermore, we will discuss how interaction between different types of ionotropic receptors may create "timing" windows during which particular timing rules lead to synaptic changes.Neural Plasticity 01/2011; 2011:870763. · 2.00 Impact Factor