Silymarin protects against paracetamol-induced lipid peroxidation and liver damage. J Appl Toxicol
Departamento de Farmacologia y Toxicologia, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F. Journal of Applied Toxicology
(Impact Factor: 2.98).
12/1992; 12(6):439-42. DOI: 10.1002/jat.2550120613
The effect of silymarin on liver damage induced by acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication was studied. Wistar male rats pretreated (72 h) with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) (20 mg kg-1 body wt. i.p.) were divided into three groups: animals in group 1 were treated with acetaminophen (APAP) (500 mg kg-1 body wt. p.o.), group 2 consisted of animals that received APAP plus silymarin (200 mg kg-1 body wt. p.o.) 24 h before APAP, and rats in group 3 (control) received the equivalent amount of the vehicles. Animals were sacrificed at different times after APAP administration. Reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and glycogen were measured in liver and alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activities were measured in serum. After APAP intoxication, GSH and glycogen decreased very fast (1 h) and remained low for 6 h. Lipid peroxidation increased three times over the control 4 and 6 h after APAP treatment. Enzyme activities increased 18 h after intoxication. In the group receiving APAP plus silymarin, levels of lipid peroxidation and serum enzyme activities remained within the control values at any time studied. The fall in GSH was not prevented by silymarin, but glycogen was restored at 18 h. It was concluded that silymarin can protect against APAP intoxication through its antioxidant properties, possibly acting as a free-radical scavenger.
Available from: Opeolu Ojo
- "), ALP and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (Muriel et al., 1992). "
09/2015; 1(1). DOI:10.5455/jmhe.2015.09.020
Available from: Kit Lam Chan
- "Silymarin can block the binding of potentially hepatocellular toxins to the outer surface of the cells and directly relief the hepatocytes (Campos et al., 1989; Muriel et al., 1992). Silymarin, as a strong free radical scavenger, has attracted intensive attention for its effect to increase the formation of glutathione in hepatocytes (Sharma et al., 2008). "
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ABSTRACT: Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic and occasional drug-resistant influenza strains have highlighted the need to develop novel anti-influenza therapeutics. Here we report computational and experimental efforts to identify influenza neuraminidase inhibitors from among the 3000 natural compounds in the Malaysian-Plants Natural-Product (NADI) database. These 3000 compounds were first docked into the neuraminidase active site. The five plants with the largest number of top predicted ligands were selected for experimental evaluation. Twelve specific compounds isolated from these five plants were shown to inhibit neuraminidase, including two compounds with IC50 values less than 92 μM. Furthermore, four of the twelve isolated compounds had also been identified in the top 100 compounds from the virtual screen. Together, these results suggest an effective new approach for identifying bioactive plant species that will further the identification of new pharmacologically active compounds from diverse natural-product resources.
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 01/2015; 55(2). DOI:10.1021/ci500405g · 3.74 Impact Factor
- "Antioxidants, such as silymarin (Pascual et al., 1993), exert liver protection against several toxins including APAP overdoses (Muriel et al., 1992). Reduced GSH can effectively protect the liver both by scavenging NAPQI and by detoxifying ROS and RNS, such as peroxynitrite. "
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ABSTRACT: Context: Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss. (Brassicaceae)] is reported to possess diverse pharmacological properties. However, limited information is available concerning its hepatoprotective activity and mechanism of action. Objective: To study the protective mechanism of mustard seed extract against acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in a hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line. Materials and methods: Hepatotoxicity models were established using APAP (2.5–22.5 mM) based on the cytotoxicity profile. An antioxidant-rich fraction from mustard seeds was extracted and evaluated for its hepatoprotective potential. The mechanism of action was elucidated using various in vitro antioxidant assays, the detection of intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell cycle analysis. The phytoconstituents isolated via HPLC-DAD were also evaluated for hepatoprotective activity. Results: Hydromethanolic seed extract exhibited hepatoprotective activity in post- and pre-treatment models of 20 mM APAP toxicity and restored the elevated levels of liver indices to normal values (p < 0.05). Post-treatment suppressed the generation of ROS by 58.37% and pre-treatment effectively prevented the generation of ROS by 90.5%. The mechanism of ROS suppression was further supported by antioxidant activity (IC50) data from DPPH (103.37 ± 4.2 µg AAE/mg), FRAP (83.26 ± 1.1 µg AAE/mg), ORAC (1115 µM GAE/ml), ABTS (83.05 µg GAE/ml), and superoxide (345.22 ± 5.15 µg AAE/mg) scavenging assays and by the restoration of cell cycle alterations. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed the presence quercetin, vitamin E, and catechin, which exhibited hepatoprotective activity. Discussion and conclusions: A phytoextract of mustard seeds acts by suppressing the generation of ROS in response to APAP toxicity.
Pharmaceutical Biology 12/2014; 53(7). DOI:10.3109/13880209.2014.950675 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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