Silymarin protects against paracetamol-induced lipid peroxidation and liver damage
ABSTRACT The effect of silymarin on liver damage induced by acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication was studied. Wistar male rats pretreated (72 h) with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) (20 mg kg-1 body wt. i.p.) were divided into three groups: animals in group 1 were treated with acetaminophen (APAP) (500 mg kg-1 body wt. p.o.), group 2 consisted of animals that received APAP plus silymarin (200 mg kg-1 body wt. p.o.) 24 h before APAP, and rats in group 3 (control) received the equivalent amount of the vehicles. Animals were sacrificed at different times after APAP administration. Reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and glycogen were measured in liver and alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activities were measured in serum. After APAP intoxication, GSH and glycogen decreased very fast (1 h) and remained low for 6 h. Lipid peroxidation increased three times over the control 4 and 6 h after APAP treatment. Enzyme activities increased 18 h after intoxication. In the group receiving APAP plus silymarin, levels of lipid peroxidation and serum enzyme activities remained within the control values at any time studied. The fall in GSH was not prevented by silymarin, but glycogen was restored at 18 h. It was concluded that silymarin can protect against APAP intoxication through its antioxidant properties, possibly acting as a free-radical scavenger.
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ABSTRACT: Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic and occasional drug-resistant influenza strains have highlighted the need to develop novel anti-influenza therapeutics. Here we report computational and experimental efforts to identify influenza neuraminidase inhibitors from among the 3000 natural compounds in the Malaysian-Plants Natural-Product (NADI) database. These 3000 compounds were first docked into the neuraminidase active site. The five plants with the largest number of top predicted ligands were selected for experimental evaluation. Twelve specific compounds isolated from these five plants were shown to inhibit neuraminidase, including two compounds with IC50 values less than 92 μM. Furthermore, four of the twelve isolated compounds had also been identified in the top 100 compounds from the virtual screen. Together, these results suggest an effective new approach for identifying bioactive plant species that will further the identification of new pharmacologically active compounds from diverse natural-product resources.Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 01/2015; 55(2). DOI:10.1021/ci500405g · 4.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We used the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) induced liver cirrhosis model to test the molecular mechanism of action involved in cirrhosis-associated cardiac hypertrophy and the effectiveness of Ocimum gratissimum extract (OGE) and silymarin against cardiac hypertrophy. We treated male wistar rats with CCl(4) and either OGE (0.02 g/kg B.W. or 0.04 g/kg B.W.) or silymarin (0.2 g/kg B.W.). Cardiac eccentric hypertrophy was induced by CCl(4) along with cirrhosis and increased expression of cardiac hypertrophy related genes NFAT, TAGA4, and NBP, and the interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling pathway related genes MEK5, ERK5, JAK, and STAT3. OGE or silymarin co-treatment attenuated CCl(4)-induced cardiac abnormalities, and lowered expression of genes which were elevated by this hepatotoxin. Our results suggest that the IL-6 signaling pathway may be related to CCl(4)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. OGE and silymarin were able to lower liver fibrosis, which reduces the chance of cardiac hypertrophy perhaps by lowering the expressions of IL-6 signaling pathway related genes. We conclude that treatment of cirrhosis using herbal supplements is a viable option for protecting cardiac tissues against cirrhosis-related cardiac hypertrophy.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 11/2012; 2012:139045. DOI:10.1155/2012/139045 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The hepatoprotective effect of aqueous ethanol extract of Artimesia monosperma aerial parts was investigated against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rat. The hepatoprotective activity of A. monosperma was evaluated by determination of liver enzyme markers in the serum (aspartat amino transferase AST; serum alanine transaminase ALT and alkaline phosphatase ALP). The histopathological studies were also carried out to support the above parameters. Oral administration of A. monosperma (100 and 200 mg/kg) markedly reduced the elevated values of AST, ALT and ALP caused by CCl 4 treatment. Glutathione (GSH) significantly decreases in the group treated with CCl 4 . A. monosperma (two doses) and silymarin significantly increased GSH levels when they administrated with CCl 4 . However, silymarin normalized liver enzymes and increased GSH levels than A. monosperma (two doses) when compared with the control group. Histopathological results revealed that A. monosperma treatment with its two doses exhibited almost normal architecture, compared to CCl 4 -treated group. Image analysis of liver revealed a marked reduction in liver damage area after treatment with A. monosperma (100 or 200 mg/kg) and silymarin compared with CCl 4 -treated group. A phytochemical study of A. monosprema resulted in the isolation of a quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside; quercetin 5-O-β-glucopyranoside; isorhamnetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside; 5, 4' -dihydroxy 6, 7-dimethoxy flavone; 5, 3' -dihydroxy 6, 7, 4'-trimethoxy flavone; 5, 7, 3' -trihydroxy 3, 6, 4' -trimethoxy flavone; quercetin and isorhamnetin. Structures of the isolated compounds were established by chromatography, UV and 1D/2D 1 H' 13 C spectroscopy. Hepatoprotective effect of A. momosperma is probably due to combined effect of flavonoids.