Light-regulated expression of the psbD gene family in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942: evidence for the role of duplicated psbD genes in cyanobacteria.
ABSTRACT The genome of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 contains two psbD genes encoding the D2 protein of the photosystem II reaction center: psbDI, which is cotranscribed as a discistronic message with psbC (the gene encoding CP43, a chlorophyll-a binding protein), and psbDII, which is monocistronic. Northern blot analysis of psbD transcripts showed that the two genes responded differently when wild-type cells were shifted from moderate to high light intensity. Whereas psbDII transcripts increased 500% relative to unshifted control cells, psbDI-psbC transcripts remained unchanged. The beta-galactosidase activities expressed from translational fusions between the psbD genes and the Escherichia coli lacZ reporter gene displayed responses similar to those seen in the RNA. D2 protein levels in thylakoid membranes from wild-type cells increased to 250% of those of the unshifted control cells 12 h after a shift to high light intensities. In contrast, in a mutant strain (AMC016) that carries an inactive psbDII gene, D2 levels decreased by 50% under identical conditions. These results suggested that induction of psbDII gene expression by light can serve as a supplementary system for maintaining a functional photosystem II reaction center at high light intensity. This hypothesis was corroborated by mixed-culture experiments, in which AMC016 cells competed poorly with wild-type cells at high light intensity. These data suggest for the first time that differential expression of members of a cyanobacterial gene family serves to maintain a functional PSII reaction center under diverse environmental conditions.
Article: A unique regulation of the expression of the psbA, psbD, and psbE genes, encoding the D1, D2 and cytochrome b559 subunits of the Photosystem II complex in the chlorophyll d containing cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Photosynthetic electron transport, chromatic photoacclimation and expression of the genes encoding the D1, D2, and cytochrome b559 subunits of the Photosystem II complex were studied in the chlorophyll d containing cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina MBIC11017 under various environmental conditions. During oxygen deprivation and inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport by dibromothymoquinone the psbA1 gene encoding a D1′ isoform was induced. All of the three psbA and one of the three psbD (psbD2) genes, encoding two different isoforms of the D1 and the abundant isoform of the D2 proteins, respectively were induced under exposure to UV-B radiation and high intensity visible light. Under far red light the amount of Photosystem II complexes increased, and expression of the psbE2 gene encoding the alpha-subunit of cytochrome b559 was enhanced. However, the psbF and psbE1 genes encoding the beta- and another isoform of alpha-cytochrome b559, respectively remained lowly expressed under all conditions. Far red light also induced the psbD3 gene encoding a D2′ isoform whose primary structure is different from the abundant D2 isoform. psbD3 was also induced under low intensity visible light, when chromatic photoacclimation was indicated by a red-shifted absorption of chlorophyll d. Our results show that differential expression of multigene families encoding different isoforms of D1 and D2 plays an important role in the acclimation of A. marina to contrasting environmental conditions. Moreover, the disproportionate quantity of transcripts of the alpha and beta subunits of cytochrome b559 implies the existence of an alpha–alpha homodimer organization of cytochrome b559 in Photosystem II complexes.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 07/2012; 1817(7):1083-1094. · 4.66 Impact Factor
Article: Differential regulation of psbA and psbD gene expression, and the role of the different D1 protein copies in the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1, which is the preferred organism in recent structural studies of PSII, three psbA and two psbD genes code for three D1 and one D2 protein isoforms, respectively. The regulation and function of these genes and protein products is largely unknown. Therefore, we used quantitative RT-PCR to follow changes in the mRNA level of the respective genes, in combination with biophysical measurements to detect changes in the electron transport activity of Photosystem II under exposure to different visible and UV light, and temperature conditions. In cells which are acclimated to 40 micromol m(-2)s(-1) growth light conditions at 40 degrees C the main populations of the psbA and psbD transcripts arise from the psbA1 and psbD1 genes, respectively. When the temperature is raised to 60 degrees C psbA1 becomes the single dominating psbA mRNA species. Upon exposure of the cells to 500 micromol m(-2)s(-1) intensity visible light psbA3 replaces psbA1 as the dominating psbA mRNA species, and psbD2 increases at the expense of psbD1. UV-B radiation also increases the abundance of psbA3, and psbD2 at the expense of psbA1 and psbD1, respectively. From the different extent of total D1 protein loss in the absence and presence of lincomycin it was estimated that the PsbA3 protein isoform replaces PsbA1 in about 65% of PSII centers after 2 h of high light acclimation. Under the conditions of different psbA transcript distributions chlorophyll fluorescence and thermoluminescence measurements were applied to monitor charge recombination characteristics of the S2Q(A)(-) and S2Q(B)(-) states. We obtained faster decay of flash-induced chlorophyll fluorescence in the presence of DCMU, as well as lower peak temperature of the Q and B thermoluminescence bands when PsbA3 replaced PsbA1 as the main D1 protein isoform. The relevance of dynamic changes in the abundance of psbA and psbD transcript levels, as well as D1 protein isoforms in the acclimation of T. elongatus to changing environmental conditions is discussed.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2008; 1777(1):74-83. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The circadian clock of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 imposes a global rhythm of transcription on promoters throughout the genome. Inactivation of any of the four known group 2 sigma factor genes (rpoD2, rpoD3, rpoD4, and sigC), singly or pairwise, altered circadian expression from the psbAI promoter, changing amplitude, phase angle, waveform, or period. However, only the rpoD2 mutation and the rpoD3 rpoD4 and rpoD2 rpoD3 double mutations affected expression from the kaiB promoter. A striking differential effect was a 2-h lengthening of the circadian period of expression from the promoter of psbAI, but not of those of kaiB or purF, when sigC was inactivated. The data show that separate timing circuits with different periods can coexist in a cell. Overexpression of rpoD2, rpoD3, rpoD4, or sigC also changed the period or abolished the rhythmicity of PpsbAI expression, consistent with a model in which sigma factors work as a consortium to convey circadian information to downstream genes.Journal of Bacteriology 08/2002; 184(13):3530-8. · 3.83 Impact Factor