Prothymosin alpha expression occurs during G1 in proliferating B or T lymphocytes.
ABSTRACT To gain insight into possible functions for prothymosin alpha in the proliferative cycle of lymphocytes, we examined the kinetics of prothymosin alpha mRNA expression in mitogen stimulated murine lymphocytes. This mRNA increases after mitogen stimulation, peaking in mid G1. This kinetics is compatible with induction of the prothymosin alpha gene by the c-myc protein (Eilers, M., Schirm, S. and Bishop, J.M. (1991) EMBO J., 10, 133-141). Thus, although prothymosin alpha mRNA is found throughout the cell cycle, the elevated expression in G1 may be associated with an increased requirement for prothymosin alpha during the G1/S transition or the S phase of the cell cycle.
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ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is a known regulatory transcription factor that has been shown to interact with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) when cotransfected in human cell lines and by in vitro binding experiments. Previous studies have shown that EBNA3C interacts with p300 and prothymosin alpha (ProTalpha) in EBV-infected cells and may be involved in recruiting acetyltransferases to the chromatin for acetylation of histones and transcriptional activation. EBNA3C has also been shown to function as a repressor of transcription when directed to promoters. In this report, we show that EBNA3C complexed with ProTalpha can also recruit deacetylase activity and associates in a complex that includes HDAC1 and HDAC2 in human B cells. A complex of EBNA3C and ProTalpha coimmunoprecipitated with HDAC1 and HDAC2 in cell lines stably expressing EBNA3C. Additionally, this complex associated with the mSin3A and NCoR corepressors in EBNA3C-expressing cell lines and may function in a complex with additional transcription factors known to be repressors of transcription. EBNA3C in complex with ProTalpha recruited deacetylase activity in cell lines stably expressing EBNA3C, and this activity was shown to be partially sensitive to trichostatin A (TSA). This suggests an association with other deacetylases that are insensitive to the general inhibitory effects of TSA, as the entire activity was not abolished in multiple assays. The association between EBNA3C and the corepressors as well as HDACs is likely to depend on the presence of ProTalpha in the complex. Immunoprecipitation with anti-ProTalpha antibody immunoprecipitated EBNA3C and the other repressors, whereas immunoprecipitation with anti-EBNA3C antibody resulted in little or no association with these molecules associated with transcription repression. Clearly, EBNA3C functions as a component of a number of dynamic complexes which function in repression and activation of transcription.Journal of Virology 05/2003; 77(7):4261-72. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The thymus is a central lymphoid organ with crucial role in generating T cells and maintaining homeostasis of the immune system. More than 30 peptides, initially referred to as "thymic hormones," are produced by this gland. Although the majority of them have not been proven to be thymus-specific, thymic peptides comprise an effective group of regulators, mediating important immune functions. Thymosin fraction five (TFV) was the first thymic extract shown to stimulate lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation. Subsequent fractionation of TFV led to the isolation and characterization of a series of immunoactive peptides/polypeptides, members of the thymosin family. Extensive research on prothymosin α (proTα) and thymosin α1 (Tα1) showed that they are of clinical significance and potential medical use. They may serve as molecular markers for cancer prognosis and/or as therapeutic agents for treating immunodeficiencies, autoimmune diseases and malignancies. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying their effect are yet not fully elucidated, proTα and Tα1 could be considered as candidates for cancer immunotherapy. In this review, we will focus in principle on the eventual clinical utility of proTα, both as a tumor biomarker and in triggering anticancer immune responses. Considering the experience acquired via the use of Tα1 to treat cancer patients, we will also discuss potential approaches for the future introduction of proTα into the clinical setting.Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 02/2012; 61(5):599-614. · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prothymosin-alpha (PTalpha) is known to play a role in cell proliferation, and the PTalpha mRNA level may reflect the degree of proliferation of tumor cells. It has been reported that PTalpha mRNA levels are higher in human colon and liver cancer tissues than in the adjacent normal tissues. We examined the mRNA levels of PTalpha and c-myc in 20 lung cancers, using Bas 2500Mac systems. The PTalpha and c-myc mRNA levels in lung cancer tissues were higher than those in normal lung tissues; however, the PTalpha mRNA levels did not correlate with the stage or pathological subtype of the lung cancer and there was no correlation between the expression of PTalpha and c-myc. PTalpha mRNA overexpression in lung cancer was correlated with a poor prognosis.Surgery Today 02/2001; 31(10):936-8. · 0.96 Impact Factor