Nitric oxide synthase is a cytochrome P-450 type hemoprotein.
ABSTRACT Nitric oxide has emerged as an important mammalian metabolic intermediate involved in critical physiological functions such as vasodilation, neuronal transmission, and cytostasis. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) catalyzes the five-electron oxidation of L-arginine to citrulline and nitric oxide. Cosubstrates for the reaction include molecular oxygen and NADPH. In addition, there is a requirement for tetrahydrobiopterin. NOS also contains the coenzymes FAD and FMN and demonstrates significant amino acid sequence homology to NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase. Herein we report the identification of the inducible macrophage NOS as a cytochrome P-450 type hemoprotein. The pyridine hemochrome assay showed that the NOS contained a bound protoporphyrin IX heme. The reduced carbon monoxide binding spectrum shows an absorption maximum at 447 nm indicative of a cytochrome P-450 hemoprotein. A mixture of carbon monoxide and oxygen (80%/20%) potently inhibited the reaction (73-79%), showing that the heme functions directly in the oxidative conversion of L-arginine to nitric oxide and citrulline. Additionally, partially purified NOS from rat cerebellum was inhibited by CO, suggesting that this isoform may also contain a P-450-type heme. NOS is the first example of a soluble cytochrome P-450 in eukaryotes. In addition, the presence of FAD and FMN indicates that this is the first catalytically self-sufficient mammalian P-450 enzyme, containing both a reductase and a heme domain on the same polypeptide.
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ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are environmentally friendly biocatalysts that catalyze diverse chemical reactions using molecular oxygen under mild reaction conditions. P450s are activated upon receiving electrons from specific redox partner proteins, although the redox partners for most bacterial/archaeal P450s are not yet identified. Thus, it is important to establish a variety of efficient and versatile electron transfer systems from NAD(P)H to P450s for the design of biocatalysts. Sulfolobus solfataricus possesses a heterotrimeric proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Fusion of the PCNA subunits to S. acidocaldarius P450 (CYP119) and the Pseudomonas putida redox proteins, putidaredoxin (PdX) and putidaredoxin reductase (PdR), yielded a selective protein complex containing one molecule each of the three proteins. The PCNA-mediated heterotrimerization of CYP119, PdX and PdR enhanced the CYP119 activity, likely as a result of high local concentrations of the two redox proteins toward CYP119. Therefore, the PCNA-mediated formation of the complex containing PdX and PdR might be applicable for harnessing the utility of P450s whose redox partners are not yet identified.Biotechnology Journal 06/2014; · 3.71 Impact Factor
- Archivos latinoamericanos de nutrición 06/2003; 53(2):119-132. · 0.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Metabolic syndrome is a collection of ailments resulting in a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. It also results in prolonged endothelial dysfunction which promotes hypertension. Objective: The current study examines the acute effect of carbon monoxide (CO) inhibition and nitric oxide (NO) stimulation in septal coronary arteries. Methods: These studies were conducted in inactin anesthetized obese and lean Zucker rats (13-14 weeks of age). Coronary arteries were isolated from obese and lean Zucker rats and in vitro experiments were conducted. Isolated coronary arteries were pre-treated with chromium mesoporphyrin (CrMP) which is a heme oxygenase inhibitor and L-arginine, a NO precursor. Results: Blood pressure, non-fasting blood glucose, HBCO, CO levels and Arginase I expression were higher in obese Zucker rats (ZR) as compared to the lean (L) group. Obese ZR had higher body, kidney and heart weights as compared to the LZR. Acetylcholine induced vasodilation was greatly attenuated in Obese ZR compared to the lean group. No differences in the diameters of the septal coronary artery were observed in both groups when treated with CrMP. However, pretreatment with L-arginine, abolished the differences between the groups. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the potential of NO induction to improve coronary blood flow during metabolic syndrome induced endothelial dysfunction, where alterations in CO levels appeared to have no significant coronary effects.The International journal of medicine. 03/2014; 2(1):8.