Dysmyelinogenesis in animal model of GM1 gangliosidosis.

Dept. of Pediatrics (Neurology), Tufts University Schools of Medicine, Boston, MA.
Pediatric Neurology (Impact Factor: 1.5). 07/1992; 8(4):255-61. DOI: 10.1016/0887-8994(92)90361-2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), pathologic examinations, and biochemical analyses were performed on 2 different canine mutants with GM1 gangliosidosis (i.e., English Springer Spaniel and Portuguese Water Dog) and on age- and sex-matched controls. Serial MRI studies were also performed on a child with infantile-onset GM1 gangliosidosis. The affected dogs had abnormalities on MRI, including a relative increase in gray matter and an abnormal signal intensity of cerebral and cerebellar white matter observed on T2-weighted MRI. White matter changes on MRI were similar to white matter abnormalities observed in a 15-month-old boy with GM1 gangliosidosis. The weight ratio of white to gray matter from the frontal lobe was markedly reduced. Microscopic examination revealed characteristic ballooned neurons which stained lightly with Luxol-fast blue. The central cerebral and cerebellar folia white matter exhibited pallor and gliosis, while the corpus callosum and fornix stained normally with Luxol-fast blue. Axons appeared intact on Bodian staining. Ultrastructural studies revealed fewer myelinated axons in affected puppies. Total gangliosides in gray matter were elevated. Thin-layer chromatography demonstrated GM1 ganglioside as the predominant ganglioside. The amount of cerebrosides and sulfatides was reduced in the gray and white matter when compared to controls but the ratio in gray and white matter remained unchanged. Immunostaining of neutral glycolipids disclosed increased amounts of stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 glycolipid in gray matter. These findings suggest that canine models for GM1 gangliosidosis are associated with abnormal myelin development which may be similar to the human disease.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: More than 50 hereditary lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are currently described. Most of these disorders are due to a deficiency of certain hydrolases/glycosidases and subsequent accumulation of nonhydrolyzable carbohydrate-containing compounds in lysosomes. Such accumulation causing hypertrophy of the lysosomal compartment is a characteristic feature of affected cells in LSDs. The investigation of biochemical and cellular parameters is of particular interest for understanding "life" of lysosomes in the normal state and in LSDs. This review highlights the wide spectrum of biochemical and morphological changes during developing LSDs that are extremely critical for many metabolic processes inside the various cells and tissues of affected persons. The data presented will help establish new complex strategies for metabolic correction of LSDs.
    Biochemistry (Moscow) 07/2014; 79(7):619-636. DOI:10.1134/S0006297914070049 · 1.35 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: GM1-gangliosidosis is a glycosphingolipid lysosomal storage disease involving accumulation of GM1 and its asialo form (GA1) primarily in the brain. Thin-layer chromatography and X-ray diffraction were used to analyze the lipid content/composition and the myelin structure of the optic and sciatic nerves from 7- and 10-month old β-galactosidase (β-gal) +/? and β-gal -/- mice, a model of GM1gangliosidosis. Optic nerve weight was lower in the β-gal -/- mice than in unaffected β-gal +/? mice, but no difference was seen in sciatic nerve weight. The levels of GM1 and GA1 were significantly increased in both the optic nerve and sciatic nerve of the β-gal -/- mice. The content of myelin-enriched cerebrosides, sulfatides, and plasmalogen ethanolamines was significantly lower in optic nerve of β-gal -/- mice than in β-gal +/? mice; however, cholesteryl esters were enriched in the β-gal -/- mice. No major abnormalities in these lipids were detected in the sciatic nerve of the β-gal -/- mice. The abnormalities in GM1 and myelin lipids in optic nerve of β-gal -/- mice correlated with a reduction in the relative amount of myelin and periodicity in fresh nerve. By contrast, the relative amount of myelin and periodicity in the sciatic nerves from control and β-gal -/- mice were indistinguishable, suggesting minimal pathological involvement in sciatic nerve. Our results indicate that the greater neurochemical pathology observed in the optic nerve than in the sciatic nerve of β-gal -/- mice is likely due to the greater glycolipid storage in optic nerve. © The Author(s) 2015.
    ASN Neuro 02/2015; 7(1). DOI:10.1177/1759091415568913 · 4.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The sphingolipidoses are a group of inherited lysosomal storage diseases in which sphingolipids accumulate due to the defective activity of one or other of the enzymes involved in their degradation. For most of the sphingolipidoses, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that lead to disease, which has negatively impacted attempts to develop therapies for these devastating human diseases. Use of both genetically-modified animals, ranging from mice to larger mammals, and of novel cell culture systems, is of utmost importance in delineating the molecular mechanisms that cause pathophysiology, and in providing tools that enable testing the efficacy of new therapies. In this review, we discuss eight sphingolipidoses, namely Gaucher disease, Fabry disease, Metachromatic leukodystrophy, Krabbe disease, Niemann-Pick diseases A and B, Farber disease, GM1 gangliosidoses, and GM2 gangliosidoses, and describe the tools that are currently available for their study. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Tools to study lipid functions.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.bbalip.2014.02.008 · 4.50 Impact Factor