Role of the dopaminergic system in depression.
ABSTRACT A hypothesis implicating dopamine in depression was proposed over 15 years ago (Randrup et al 1975). The identification of multiple new subtypes of dopamine receptors and evolving views regarding the function of the dopamine systems in the brain require a reexamination of this hypothesis. Results from studies in depression, Parkinson's disease, and animal models of depression suggest a deficiency of dopamine in depression. Dopamine precursors, dopamine agonists, and dopamine reuptake inhibitors show therapeutic efficacy in depression. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and standard pharmacological antidepressants enhance dopamine function. Studies using receptor-specific drugs in clinical trials and neuroimaging studies are needed to further clarify the role of dopamine in depression.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Depressive patients frequently report to perceive time as going by very slowly. Potential effects of depression on duration judgments have been investigated mostly by means of four different time perception tasks: verbal time estimation, time production, time reproduction, and duration discrimina-tion. Ratings of the subjective flow of time have also been obtained. Methods: By means of a classical random-effects meta-regression model and a robust variance estimation model, this meta-analysis aims at evaluating the inconsistent results from 16 previous studies on time perception in depression, representing data of 433 depressive patients and 485 healthy control subjects. Results: Depressive patients perceive time as going by less quickly relative to control subjects (g ¼0.66, p¼ 0.033). However, the analyses showed no significant effects of depression in the four time perception tasks. There was a trend towards inferior time discrimination performance in depression (g ¼ 0.38, p¼ 0.079). The meta-regression also showed no significant effects of interval duration. Thus, the lack of effects of depression on timing does not depend on interval duration. However, for time production, there was a tendency towards overproduction of short and underproduction of long durations in depressive patients compared to healthy controls. Limitations: Several aspects, such as influences of medication and the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system on time perception in depression, have not been investigated in sufficient detail yet and were therefore not addressed by this meta-analysis. Conclusions: Depression has medium effects on the subjective flow of time whereas duration judgments basically remain unaffected.Journal of Affective Disorders 01/2015; 175:359-372. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tardive dystonia and dyskinesia are potentially irreversible neurological syndromes. Successful electroconvulsive treatment (ECT) has been reported by multiple sources; however, the existing retrospective reviews and open prospective trials provide little information on the response rate.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2014; 10:1209-12. · 2.00 Impact Factor