Color flow imaging in children with clinically suspected testicular torsion.
ABSTRACT 32 boys with symptoms of an acute scrotum had testicular sonography with color flow imaging (CFI). Patients ranged in age from 4-15 years (avg = 11 yrs). Symptoms were present from 12 h to 5 days (avg = 42 hrs). CFI correctly predicted presence or absence of testicular perfusion in 11 boys who had surgical exploration of the scrotum. 8 of these 11 patients had hemorrhagic infarction of the testicle, 1 had torsion of the appendix epididymis, 1 had epididymitis, and 1 had bilateral incomplete torsions with normal testicular perfusion. The remaining 21 patients did not have an operation. At least a 1 year follow-up of all patients has shown no clinical evidence of testicular atrophy to suggest a missed diagnosis of torsion. Absence or markedly decreased testicular flow was easily identified and indicates testicular ischemia/infarction. Conversely, hyperemia of the testis and/or epididymis is usually associated with trauma or infection. However, incomplete torsion or spontaneous detorsion may demonstrate normal testicular flow on CFI. Only close correlation of clinical symptomatology and gray scale findings with CFI can identify these patients, who remain at high risk for subsequent complete torsion and infarction.
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ABSTRACT: We performed this study to determine whether scrotal trauma can cause hyperemia of the epididymis. This diagnosis is helpful because traumatic epididymitis can be treated conservatively. We retrospectively reviewed color Doppler and gray-scale sonograms of five patients who had suffered trauma to the scrotum that resulted in epididymal hyperemia, which we called traumatic epididymitis. We also reviewed the presentation and management of each patient. Color Doppler sonography revealed focal (one patient) and diffuse (four patients) hyperemia. Gray-scale images revealed epididymal enlargement in all patients. These findings were indistinguishable from those of infectious epididymitis by sonography. One patient also had hyperemia of the testis. Four of the five patients were managed conservatively; the other underwent surgical exploration for a coexisting testicular rupture. Careful evaluation of the epididymis with both gray-scale and color Doppler sonography should be part of every sonographic survey of the scrotum for blunt trauma. Traumatic epididymitis, which may be noted on color Doppler images, should not be confused with infectious epididymitis. Surgery is not necessary unless another injury requires it.American Journal of Roentgenology 07/1996; 166(6):1323-5. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this paper, we review the clinical and imaging features of the two most common causes of the acute scrotum, testicular torsion and epididymitis/orchitis. Pertinent anatomy, imaging study techniques and pitfalls in diagnosis are discussed.Emergency Radiology 10/1998; 5(6):394-402.
- Urologic Clinics of North America - UROL CLIN N AMER. 01/1998; 25(4):715-723.