Delayed recognition of human immunodeficiency virus infection in preadolescent children.
ABSTRACT Thirty-two (18%) of 181 children cared for at our institution who were infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were first seen, and HIV was diagnosed, when they were 4 years of age and older. Initial complaints or diagnoses for these children included the following: hematologic disorders (5) (3 idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, 1 neutropenia, 1 anemia); recurrent bacterial infections (10); Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (3); developmental delay (1); skin disorders (2) (1 genital wart, 1 chronic zoster); weight loss (3); malignancy (1); and nephropathy (1). Eight children were referred for evaluation because of maternal HIV-1 infection. The risk factors for HIV-1 infection included maternal/perinatal exposure (22), perinatal blood transfusion (6), blood transfusion during infancy (2), and sexual abuse (2). Ten (31%) of the 32 children have subsequently died. The longest survival from perinatal infection was 12 years. HIV-1 infection in children can result in a prolonged clinical latency and can masquerade as other pathologic conditions. The absence of clinical symptoms in older children at risk for HIV-1 infection should not deter HIV testing.
Article: The treatment of non-HIV-related conditions in newborns at risk for HIV: a survey of neonatologists.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes of neonatologists about treatment of conditions unrelated to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for critically ill newborns at risk for HIV. Questionnaires were mailed to the 1508 members of the Section on Perinatal Medicine of the American Academy of Pediatrics; 63% completed the survey (n = 951). The survey included structured questions about treatment for hypothetical cases and open-ended questions eliciting reasons for decisions. Differences in recommendations for treatment by both maternal and infant HIV status were substantial and statistically reliable. For example, 98% of respondents recommended life-saving cardiac surgery for a neonate with no risk for HIV, but only 93% recommended such surgery for a child of an HIV-positive mother; only 50% recommended the same surgery for a newborn known to be infected. The corresponding figures for chronic dialysis were 91%, 61%, and 26%. Most expected diminished quality of life for both infected and uninfected children of HIV-positive mothers. Recommendations about life-sustaining treatment for non-HIV-related conditions varied by HIV status. These data on physician attitudes raise the possibility that infants labeled as HIV positive, whether infected or not, may suffer discrimination.American Journal of Public Health 12/1995; 85(11):1507-13. · 3.93 Impact Factor
Article: Characteristics of HIV infected adolescents in Latin America: results from the NISDI pediatric study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: HIV-infected adolescents are a heterogeneous population; source of infection, immunodeficiency severity and antiretroviral (ARV) experience vary. Here, we describe youth followed in an observational study at Latin American sites of the NICHD International Site Development Initiative (NISDI). The NISDI pediatric protocol is an ongoing prospective cohort study that collects demographic, clinical, immunologic, virologic and medication data. Youth were enrolled at 15 sites in Brazil, Argentina and Mexico between 2002 and 2006. HIV-infected subjects aged 12-21 years at the time of enrollment were analyzed. Data from 120 HIV-infected youth were analyzed. Sixty-nine (58%) had acquired HIV through vertical transmission (VT); 51(42%) via horizontal transmission (HT). Twenty-eight percent of the VT group were not diagnosed until they were ≥10 years of age. Ninety-one percent of the VT group and 46% of the HT were receiving ARV at enrollment. Modes of HT included sexual (ST), blood product transfusion (BPT) and unknown (U). Severe immunodeficiency was frequent (21%) in the ST group. Low BMI was frequent in the VT and BPT sub-groups. Utilization of HAART increased over the course of the study, but viral suppression was present in only 38% of the VT group and 37% of the HT group at study end. This cohort of HIV-infected adolescents in Latin America displayed a diverse epidemiologic pattern. Care providers must be prepared to address the diverse needs and challenges of this population. The levels of virologic suppression achieved were inadequate. Further research into appropriate interventions for this population is urgently needed.Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 06/2011; 57(3):165-72. · 1.39 Impact Factor