Importance of shared genes and shared environments for symptoms of depression in older adults.
ABSTRACT The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale was administered to 68 identical and 161 fraternal twin pairs reared apart and 114 identical and 138 fraternal pairs reared together to ascertain relative genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in self-reported depressive symptoms. Intraclass correlations and model fitting indicated that genetic influences explained 16% of the variance in total depression scores and 19% for the Psychomotor Retardation and Somatic Complaints subscale, but heritability was minimal for the Depressed Mood and Well-Being subscales. Influence of family rearing context played a substantial role in explaining twin similarity, whereas unique life experiences accounted for the greatest proportion of variance. Significant age group differences were observed, with heritability greater in twins of 60 years of age or older than in twins under 60, especially for Psychomotor Retardation.
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ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to estimate the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on the association between three indices of subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect) and positive and negative components of marital adjustment (i.e., spousal support, spousal strain) in a sample of adult married twin pairs (N = 453 pairs). Results indicated that subjective well-being and marital adjustment were significantly associated (particularly in women), that there were gender differences in the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on this covariation, and that this association was largely influenced by genetic factors in women and genetic and nonshared environmental factors in men. These findings highlight the importance of using genetically informed research to evaluate the genetic and environmental influences on the covariation between marital adjustment and individual outcomes such as subjective well-being.03/2014; 3(1):48-64. DOI:10.1037/cfp0000008
Actas espanolas de psiquiatria 01/2008; 37(3):128. · 0.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mental health is not simply the absence of mental illness; rather it is a distinct entity representing wellness. Models of wellbeing have been proposed that emphasize components of subjective wellbeing, psychological wellbeing, or a combination of both. A new 26-item scale of wellbeing (COMPAS-W) was developed in a cohort of 1669 healthy adult twins (18–61 years). The scale was derived using factor analysis of multiple scales of complementary constructs and confirmed using tests of reliability and convergent validity. Bivariate genetic modeling confirmed its heritability. From an original 89 items we identified six independent subcomponents that contributed to wellbeing. The COMPAS-W scale and its subcomponents showed construct validity against psychological and physical health behaviors, high internal consistency (average r=0.71, Wellbeing r=0.84), and 12-month test–retest reliability (average r=0.62, Wellbeing r=0.82). There was a moderate contribution of genetics to total Wellbeing (heritability h2=48%) and its subcomponents: Composure (h2=24%), Own-worth (h2=42%), Mastery (h2=40%), Positivity (h2=42%), Achievement (h2=32%) and Satisfaction (h2=43%). Multivariate genetic modeling indicated genetic variance was correlated across the scales, suggesting common genetic factors contributed to Wellbeing and its subcomponents. The COMPAS-W scale provides a validated indicator of wellbeing and offers a new tool to quantify mental health.Psychiatry Research 09/2014; 219(1):204–213. DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.04.033 · 2.68 Impact Factor