Safety and efficacy of interferon alpha-2b following prednisone withdrawal in the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis B. A case-controlled, randomised study.
ABSTRACT The therapeutic effects of interferon alpha-2b (Intron A; Scherag) in patients with chronic active hepatitis caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) were assessed in a randomised, case-controlled clinical trial conducted between January 1988 and June 1990. Treatment involved a short course of prednisone followed by interferon alpha-2b, initially 10 million U by subcutaneous injection, 3 times a week for 16 weeks. All patients were symptomatic, were known to have had hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) in their blood for at least 6 months, and had elevated serum aminotransferase activities with histological evidence of chronic active hepatitis. Patients with carcinoma, renal or haematological abnormalities or decompensated cirrhosis were excluded. In 6 of 10 patients randomised to receive interferon and 1 of 10 controls, HBeAg and HBV DNA were cleared from the blood during the 12-month study period (P < 0.05). An indeterminate response with clearance of HBV DNA but persistence of HBeAg was noted in 1 patient receiving interferon. Serum aminotransferase levels decreased only in those patients who had responded to treatment, but this did not reach statistical significance for the group as a whole. Histological studies, where available, showed decreased hepatic periportal necrosis in patients who underwent treatment. Two patients relapsed to HBeAg-positive status 2 months after their initial seroconversion; 1 became clear again during a repeat course of interferon. Side-effects of treatment were common and included fever, malaise, myalgias and myelosuppression. One patient developed hypothyroidism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
SourceAvailable from: Roderick Macdonald[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the comparative effectiveness of antiviral drugs in adults with chronic hepatitis B monoinfection for evidence-based decision-making. A systematic review of randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) published in English. Results after interferon and nucleos(t)ides analog therapies were synthesized with random-effects meta-analyses and number needed to treat (NNT). Despite sustained improvements in selected biomarkers, no one drug regimen improved all intermediate outcomes. In 16 underpowered RCTs, drug treatments did not reduce mortality, liver cancer, or cirrhosis. Sustained HBV DNA clearance was achieved in one patient when two were treated with adefovir (NNT from 1 RCT=2 95%CI 1;2) or interferon alpha-2b (NNT from 2 RCTs=2 95%CI 2;4), 13 with lamivudine (NNT from 1 RCT=13 95%CI 7;1000), and 11 with peginterferon alpha-2a vs. lamivudine (NNT from 1 RCT=11 95%CI 7;25). Sustained HBeAg seroconversion was achieved in one patient when eight were treated with interferon alpha-2b (NNT from 2 RCTs=8 95%CI 5;33) or 10--with peginterferon alpha-2b vs. interferon alpha-2b (NNT from 1 RCT=10 95%CI 5;1000). Greater benefits and safety after entecavir vs. lamivudine or pegylated interferon alpha-2b vs. interferon alpha-2b require future investigation of clinical outcomes. Adverse events were common and more frequent after interferon. Treatment utilization for adverse effects is unknown. Individual clinical decisions should rely on comparative effectiveness and absolute rates of intermediate outcomes and adverse events. Future research should clarify the relationship of intermediate and clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of drugs for evidence-based policy and clinical decisions.Journal of General Internal Medicine 03/2011; 26(3):326-39. DOI:10.1007/s11606-010-1569-5 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of antiviral therapy on clinical outcomes in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) is not established. We aimed to assess the effects of interferon and/or nucleos(t)ide analogues versus placebo or no intervention on prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and mortality in chronic HBV. Random-effects pairwise meta-analysis of randomised trials and observational studies. Electronic and manual searches were combined. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the primary analyses. Observational studies were included in sensitivity analyses. The primary outcome measures were HCC incidence and mortality. The secondary outcome measure was HCC mortality. We included 8 RCTs, 8 prospective cohort studies and 19 case-control studies with a total of 3433 patients allocated to antiviral therapy and 4625 controls. The maximum duration of follow-up was 23 years. Randomised trials found no effect of antiviral therapy on HCC or mortality. Cohort studies found that antiviral therapy increased the risk of HCC (risk ratio 1.43; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.95), whereas case-control studies found a decreased risk of HCC in the intervention group (risk ratio 0.69; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.88). There was a clear difference between the results of RCTs and observational studies (test for subgroup differences, p<0.001). Antiviral therapy did not affect mortality in cohort studies, but reduced mortality in case-control studies (relative risk 0.71; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.93; test for subgroup differences, p=0.406). The effect of antiviral therapy on clinical outcomes in HBV remains to be established. Although there was a positive effect in the sensitivity analyses, the strength of the evidence does not allow for extrapolation to clinical practice as research design plays an essential role in the overall assessment. Prospero number CRD42013003881.BMJ Open 08/2013; 3(8). DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003265 · 2.06 Impact Factor
Article: Management of chronic hepatitis B.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Synthesize evidence of the natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and effects and harms of antiviral drugs on clinical, virological, histological, and biochemical outcomes. MEDLINE, electronic databases, and manual searches of systematic reviews. We included original observational studies to assess natural history and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adults with CHB published in English to assess treatment effects and harms if they reported mortality, incidence of hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC), cirrhosis or failure, HBeAg or HBsAg, viral load (HBV DNA), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, histological necroinflammatory and fibrosis scores, and adverse events after interferon alfa-2b, pegylated interferon alfa 2-a, lamivudine, adefovir, entecavir, tenovir or telbivudine. We excluded pregnant women, transplant patients, and individuals undergoing cancer chemotherapy. We calculated relative risk or absolute risk differences at end of treatment and post-treatment. Observational studies (41 publications) suggested that male gender, coinfection with hepatitis C, D, or HIV, increased HBV DNA, and cirrhosis were associated with increased risk of HCC and death. Drugs did not reduce death, liver failure, or HCC in 16 RCTs not designed to test long-term clinical outcomes. Evidence from 93 publications of 60 RCTs suggested drug effects on viral load or replication, liver enzymes, and histology at end of treatment and lasting from 3 to 6 months off treatment. No one treatment improved all outcomes and there was limited evidence on comparative effects. Two RCTs suggested interferon alfa-2b increased CHB solution versus placebo. Interferon alfa-2b or lamivudine improved off treatment HBV DNA and HBeAg clearance and seroconversion and ALT normalization. Adefovir improved off treatment ALT normalization and HBV DNA clearance. Pegylated interferon alfa 2-a versus lamivudine improved off-treatment HBV DNA and HBeAg clearance and seroconversion, ALT normalization and liver histology. Lamivudine combined with interferon alfa-2b versus lamivudine improved off treatment HBV DNA clearance and HBeAg seroconversion and reduced HBV DNA mutations. Pegylated interferon alfa 2-a plus lamivudine improved off treatment HBV DNA and HBeAg clearance and seroconversion and ALT normalization compared to lamivudine but not pegylated interferon alfa 2-a monotherapy. Adverse events were common but generally mild and did not result in increased treatment discontinuation. Longer hepatitis duration, male gender, baseline viral load and genotype, HBeAg, and histological status may modify treatment effect on intermediate outcomes. Adefovir and pegylated interferon alfa 2-a with lamivudine improved off treatment viral clearance in HBeAg negative patients. There was insufficient evidence to determine if biochemical, viral, or histological measures are valid surrogates of treatment effect on mortality, liver failure, or cancer. Adults with CHB have an increased risk of death, hepatic decompensation, and HCC. Mono or combined drug therapy improves selected virological, biochemical, and histological markers with no consistent effects on all examined outcomes. Patient and disease characteristics may modify treatment-induced intermediate outcomes. Evidence was insufficient to assess treatment effect on clinical outcomes, predict individualized patient response, or determine if intermediate measures are reliable surrogates. Future research should assess long-term drug effects on clinical outcomes and among patient subpopulations.Evidence report/technology assessment 11/2008;