Two distinct regions of the mouse beta Fc gamma R gene control its transcription.
ABSTRACT The low-affinity receptors for the Fc portion of IgG (Fc gamma RII and Fc gamma RIII) are born by most of the immunocompetent cells and mediate a wide spectrum of biological activities. Macrophages, mast cells and lymphocytes express the type II Fc gamma R whereas the type III Fc gamma R is expressed on macrophages, mast cells and NK cells. In mice, the beta Fc gamma R gene codes for Fc gamma RII and the alpha Fc gamma R gene codes for the ligand-binding Fc gamma RIII alpha-chain. We have previously demonstrated that the methylation of the 5' region of these genes control their expression. In the present paper, we investigate the role of two unmethylated regions of the beta gene, the promoter and the third intron, in the control of its transcription. We show, by using two cell lines representative of B and mast cells, that different promoter fragments determine, in these two cell types, the transcription of the beta Fc gamma R gene. The third intron of the beta Fc gamma R gene contains sequences, which, introduced upstream to homologous or heterologous promoter, inhibit the transcriptional activity of these promoter. Thus, in B cells and in mast cells, the transcription of the beta Fc gamma R gene is controlled by two distinct regions of the gene.
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ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic antibody-mediated autoimmune disease that develops under the control of multiple susceptibility genes. Genetic studies in murine and human SLE have identified several chromosomal intervals that contain candidate susceptibility genes. However, the ultimate identification of the genes and their roles in disease process need much further investigation. Spontaneous murine SLE models provide useful tools in this respect. In this chapter, we show this line of investigation, particularly focusing on the roles of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and immunoglobulin G Fc receptors (FcgammaRs). The existence of high-affinity autoantibodies is evidence that autoimmunity in SLE is antigen-driven. Thereby, MHC class II haplotypes have been implicated in SLE susceptibility; however, because of the linkage disequilibrium that exists among the class I, II and III genes within the MHC complex, it has been difficult to discriminate the relative contributions of individual loci. On the other hand, the extent of antibody synthesis upon antigen stimulation and associated inflammatory cascades are controlled in several ways by the balance of stimulatory and inhibitory signaling molecules on immune cells. Stimulatory/inhibitory FcgammaRs mediate one such mechanism, and there are reports indicating the association between polymorphic FcgammaRs and SLE. However, as stimulatory and inhibitory FcgammaRs cluster on the telomeric chromosome 1, the absolute contribution of individual genes has been difficult to dissect. In studies of genetic dissection using interval-congenic and intragenic recombinant mouse strains of SLE models, we show evidence and discuss how and to what extent MHC class II molecules and stimulatory/inhibitory FcgammaRs are involved in SLE susceptibility.Springer Seminars in Immunopathology 11/2006; 28(2):163-74. · 4.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: FcgammaRIIB1 molecules serve as negative feedback regulator for B cell Ag receptor-elicited activation of B cells; thus, any impaired FcgammaRIIB1 function may possibly be related to aberrant B cell activation. We earlier found deletion polymorphism in the Fcgr2b promoter region among mouse strains in which systemic autoimmune disease-prone NZB, BXSB, MRL, and autoimmune diabetes-prone nonobese diabetic, but not NZW, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice have two identical deletion sites, consisting of 13 and 3 nucleotides. In this study, we established congenic C57BL/6 mice for NZB-type Fcgr2b allele and found that NZB-type allele down-regulates FcgammaRIIB1 expression levels in germinal center B cells and up-regulates IgG Ab responses. We did luciferase reporter assays to determine whether NZB-type deletion polymorphism affects transcriptional regulation of Fcgr2b gene. Although NZW- and BALB/c-derived segments from position -302 to +585 of Fcgr2b upstream region produced significant levels of luciferase activities, only a limited activity was detected in the NZB-derived sequence. EMSA and Southwestern analysis revealed that defect in transcription activity in the NZB-derived segment is likely due to absence of transactivation by AP-4, which binds to the polymorphic 13 nucleotide deletion site. Our data imply that because of the deficient AP-4 binding, the NZB-type Fcgr2b allele polymorphism results in up-regulation of IgG Ab responses through down-regulation of FcgammaRIIB1 expression levels in germinal center B cells, and that such polymorphism may possibly form the basis of autoimmune susceptibility in combination with other background contributing genes.The Journal of Immunology 11/2002; 169(8):4340-6. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: FcgammaRIIB, a low-affinity FcR for IgG, inhibits BCR-mediated activation when these two receptors are co-cross-linked by Ags and IgG-containing immune complexes. Although a role for FcgammaRIIB in the germinal center (GC) reaction has been proposed, conflicting results have been published regarding the levels of FcgammaRIIB expressed on GC B cells in normal and autoimmune-prone mice and humans. In the present study, we investigate this issue in detail in mice by using multiple GC B cell markers, two different antigenic systems, primary and secondary GC responses, and by excluding the influence of splenic influx of immature B cells and passive acquisition of FcgammaRIIB from follicular dendritic cells. Our results are in concordance with previous data indicating that FcgammaRIIB expression is up-regulated on GC B cells in normal mice. In contrast, we observe comparable levels of FcgammaRIIB on GC and non-GC B cells in New Zealand White, New Zealand Black, and B6.Sle1 autoimmune-prone strains. Therefore, we suggest that these strains exhibit failed up-regulation of FcgammaRIIB on GC B cells, rather than down-regulation, as previously suggested. Also, in contrast to previous indications, this perturbed regulation is not uniquely associated with deletion polymorphisms in the promoter region of the FcgammaRIIB gene but does appear to be independent of genetic background. Finally, we present evidence indicating that FcgammaRIII, a low-affinity activating IgG FcR, is expressed on the GC B cells of normal but not autoimmune-prone mice.The Journal of Immunology 09/2005; 175(3):1440-9. · 5.52 Impact Factor