Academic-industry relationships in the life sciences. Extent, consequences, and management.
ABSTRACT Academic-industry relationships in the life sciences remain controversial. The available evidence suggests that such relationships have both benefits and risks for involved parties. Benefits include additional support of academic research, income for academic health centers, the potential for increased scientific and commercial productivity in both industries and universities, and enhancement of the educational experiences of students and fellows. Risks include an increase in secrecy in academic environments and damage to public support for the life science enterprise. The balance of known benefits and risks suggests that academic-industry relationships should be permitted and even selectively promoted. However, there is also a need for enhanced vigilance on the part of academic institutions and government to reduce risks posed by certain types of arrangements, especially those involving human subjects. Enhanced vigilance should include disclosure of all academic-industry relationships by life science faculty.
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ABSTRACT: Spectroscopic characterization of co-doped Tm,Ho:YVO4 crystal grown by the Czochralski method has been performed including absorption spectrum, emitting spectrum and luminescence decay lifetime. The polarization emitting spectrum around 2μm is accomplished by exciting a singly Ho3+ doped YVO4 crystal to exclude the influence of Tm3+3F4–3H6 transition and the emission cross section is deduced from both Fuchtbauer–Ladenburg (F–L) equation and reciprocity method (RM). In addition, we report up to 10.4W continuous wave (CW) output with a conversion efficiency of 40% and 10.3W Q-Switch output with 12.5kHz pulse repetition rate of diode-pumped cryogenic Tm,Ho:YVO4 laser. For Q-Switch operation, the minimum pulse width of 28.2ns is obtained, all of which demonstrate that the Tm,Ho:YVO4 is excellent laser material for 2μm radiation.Optical Materials 01/2011; 33(6):937-941. · 1.92 Impact Factor
Conference Proceeding: Models of Cooperation and Knowledge Management: The Case of Biomedical Technology Management[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the current biological paradigm, the biologist can no longer work in isolation. Networks of collaboration that are supported by information and communication technologies will enable researchers from a variety of disciplines and laboratories to generate and validate biological knowledge. Central to the development of medical tools and medical products is ensuring accessibility to knowledge for multiple researchers. Academia, government, and industry will all play a role in shaping policies that will enable cooperative knowledge production and the broad dissemination of biological knowledge. To better understand models of cooperation and knowledge management, we profile two case studies, the Agilent Microarrary Design program and the Accelrys Nanotechnology Consortium. Agilent has introduced the industry's first shared microarray design program. The program provides a new way of doing business with Agilent that allows scientists to share their custom microarray designs with designated groups while maintaining control of their intellectual property, or to share them with the scientific community at large. The Accelrys Nanotechnology Consortium provides a project framework that addresses the challenges of rational nanomaterials and nanodevice design. The Consortium gives members an edge in their R&D, increasing both its efficiency and effectiveness. It will further enhance the impact of software tools, contributing to R&D cost savings, supporting patent applications, facilitating interdisciplinary working, and supporting a smooth ongoing 'lab to fab' transition.Management of Engineering and Technology, Portland International Center for; 09/2007
Conference Proceeding: Game Models of the Defection Dilemma in Biopharmaceutical Discovery Research[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent trends in biopharmaceutical discovery research toward the systems biology paradigm have created a need for interdisciplinary teams with a wide range of skills. Success, especially economic success, will depend on the ability of team members to learn from each other. The mechanisms used for knowledge transfer and the motives of team members during knowledge production are crucial to this sharing of knowledge. Moreover, the timing of appropriation may determine whether downstream developments can be pursued. In this article we use game models to represent and analyze interactions between partners in collaborative alliances. Our contention is that a researcher's "freedom to operate" downstream is determined by cooperate-versus-defect decisions upstream, as discovery knowledge is being produced and subsequently disseminated. These decisions therefore determine whether researchers can equitably pursue downstream opportunities for medical application development.Management of Engineering and Technology, Portland International Center for; 09/2007