Antinutrients content of some locally available legumes and cereals in Nigeria.

Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria.
Tropical and geographical medicine 08/1992; 44(3):260-3.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Plant protein is the cheapest source of protein available to mankind but unfortunately the protein is accompanied by antinutrients. The quantity of oxalate and tannin in acha, bambara groundnut, guinea corn, millet, sesame seed, soybean and tiger nut were chemically analyzed. The white variety of sesame seed and soybean have the highest oxalate and tannin contents of 8.25 mg/g and 0.15 mg/g respectively. Among the cereals the black and brown varieties of millet have the highest oxalate and tannin contents of 4.65 mg/g and 0.07 mg/g respectively. The presence of these antinutrients makes plant (especially legumes) protein partially available and of poor quality.

1 Bookmark
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone density and increased bone fragility. Genetics, diet, and physical activity are established determinants of bone density. The seminomadic Fulani of northern Nigeria trek long distances on foot daily to graze and water their animals, and have access to calcium-rich dairy products. We sought to determine whether the high level of physical activity and presumed calcium-rich diet of the Fulani would promote a higher bone density, compared with their relatively inactive counterparts in the general population. Cross-sectional study. Three Fulani settlements (Toro, Tilden Fulani, and Magaman Gumau) within 5 to 15 kilometers of Jos Metropolis on the Jos Plateau in northern Nigeria. We assessed the calcaneal characteristics of a consecutive sample of 51 active seminomadic Fulani men using the Lunar Achilles+ ultrasonometer. Calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS), stiffness index (SI), and SI T-scores. The mean age of the herdsmen was 26 +/- 9 years (range, 16 to 49), and the mean BMI was 19.9 +/- 2.3 kg/m(2). The mean BUA was 124 +/- 13 dB/MHz (95% CI, 120 to 128), the mean SOS was 1572 +/- 33 m/s (95% CI, 1563 to 1581), the mean SI was 102 +/- 17 (95% CI, 97 to 107], and the mean SI T-score was -0.74 +/- 0.97 (95% CI, -0.47 to 1.01]. The mean SI was 1 T-score unit below that of an age-matched cohort in the general population. Fulani herdsmen have a theoretically increased risk for bone fracture in a background of low BMI and potentially high calcium intake.
    Medscape journal of medicine 02/2008; 10(7):174.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ultrasound analysis of the calcaneus and serum markers of bone turnover were used to examine the bone status of healthy Nigerian women who reside in an area of the world where dietary calcium intake is generally low and estrogen replacement therapy is not widely available. A total of 218 women (108 premenopausal and 110 postmenopausal) between the ages of 16 and 95 years were enrolled in the study. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound velocity (SOS) were measured and used to calculate the stiffness index (SI) of the calcaneus. In this cross-sectional study, the Nigerian women exhibited a marked age-dependent decline in SI that was defined by the regression equation SI = 105.9 - 6.62E-3 x Age2. SI was significantly correlated with age (r = -0.41, P < 0.001) and with serum NTx concentrations (r = -0.26, P < 0.001), but not with serum levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP). Years since menopause was also significantly correlated with SI (r = 0.40, P < 0.001). A significant increase in serum NTx concentration occurred at least a decade before a significant decline in SI was evident. In the total study group, 24% of the women had T-scores indicative of osteopenia and 9% had T-scores indicative of osteoporosis, based on US reference data. Although the reported current incidence of fracture is low in women in sub-Saharan West Africa, these data show that after menopause Nigerian women have a decline in bone quality and increase in bone turnover similar to North American Caucasian women.
    Calcified Tissue International 06/2001; 68(5):277-84. · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A rapid and efficient regeneration procedure via direct organogenesis from mature embryo axes of ten landraces of bambara groundnut has been developed. Embryo axis cultured on hormone-free Murashige and Skoog (MS; Murashige and Skoog, Physiol Plant 15:473–497, 1962) medium produced only single plants, while multiple shoots were produced at the nodal and apical regions of explants within 3–4wk of culture on MS medium plus B5vitamins (Gamborg et al., Exp Cell Res 50:151–158, 1968) and supplemented with cytokinins such as 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin, zeatin, and thidiazuron alone or in combination with α-naphthaleneacetic acid. BAP proved to be the most effective cytokinin tested in this study. The shoot-forming ability of embryo axis was influenced by BAP concentration, and optimal BAP concentration was determined. Vertical orientation of explants on the medium was significantly better than the horizontal position for shoot induction. Genotypes also showed significant differences in their regeneration in terms of percent response (28.77 ± 3.83–77.70 ± 10.64%) as well as an average number of shoots per explant (5.44–12.63). Regenerated shoots elongated in the same medium and rooted upon transfer to full-strength MS medium devoid of growth regulators. Regenerated plants were successfully transferred to soil and all surviving plants were morphologically normal.
    In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant 45(6):769-775. · 1.14 Impact Factor