Plant protein is the cheapest source of protein available to mankind but unfortunately the protein is accompanied by antinutrients. The quantity of oxalate and tannin in acha, bambara groundnut, guinea corn, millet, sesame seed, soybean and tiger nut were chemically analyzed. The white variety of sesame seed and soybean have the highest oxalate and tannin contents of 8.25 mg/g and 0.15 mg/g respectively. Among the cereals the black and brown varieties of millet have the highest oxalate and tannin contents of 4.65 mg/g and 0.07 mg/g respectively. The presence of these antinutrients makes plant (especially legumes) protein partially available and of poor quality.
"Cyanide also activates glycogenolysis and shunts glucose to the pentose phosphate pathway decreasing the rate of glycolysis and inhibiting the tricarbolylic acid cycle (Akintonwa and Tunwashe 1992). Odumudu (1992) and Okafor and others (2003) had earlier reported low contents of these antinutrients in tiger nut tuber flour compared with other fruits, nuts, tubers, and vegetables. Roasting numerically reduces the antinutrient composition of tiger nut tuber flour. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) is a weed plant (yellow nut sedge) of tropical and Mediterranean regions. Its sweet almond‐like tubers are highly appreciated for their health benefits and nutritive value: high content of fiber, proteins, and sugars. They are rich in oleic acid and glucose, as well as in phosphorus, potassium, and vitamins C and E. In Spain, these tuberous “nuts” are mainly used to manufacture a milky beverage called “horchata de chufa.” Tiger nut has attracted very little scientific and technological interest, except for the production of “horchata de chufa” and some studies on its oil. Development of new products from the tubers could enhance more interest in this crop. In this respect, various opportunities are offered: source of dietary fiber, use of its oil in cooking or salad preparation, production of caramel to be used as a food additive. This review presents an overview of the tiger nut, its products, and the co‐products obtained during commercial processing.
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 07/2012; DOI:10.1111/j.1541-4337.2012.00190.x · 4.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We measured the levels of the pyridinoline crosslinked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) and osteocalcin (OC) in the serum of 12 rachitic and 27 healthy Nigerian children, and compared the performance of these relatively new markers of bone metabolism with established laboratory parameters of skeletal disease.Active rickets was diagnosed on the basis of clinical and biochemical criteria. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity were determined using clinically accepted methods. Radioimmunoassay was performed to quantify parathyroid hormone, 1-,25-dihydroxyvitamin D D, OC, and ICTP.The rachitic children had statistically significant serum elevations of ICTP and osteocalcin as compared with age- and sex-matched controls. Serum levels of ICTP correlated with alkaline phosphate activity.As a marker of abnormal bone metabolism, ICTP performs at least as well as alkaline phosphate. ICTP and OC are valuable additions to the growing repertoire of bone markers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ultrasound analysis of the calcaneus and serum markers of bone turnover were used to examine the bone status of healthy Nigerian women who reside in an area of the world where dietary calcium intake is generally low and estrogen replacement therapy is not widely available. A total of 218 women (108 premenopausal and 110 postmenopausal) between the ages of 16 and 95 years were enrolled in the study. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound velocity (SOS) were measured and used to calculate the stiffness index (SI) of the calcaneus. In this cross-sectional study, the Nigerian women exhibited a marked age-dependent decline in SI that was defined by the regression equation SI = 105.9 - 6.62E-3 x Age2. SI was significantly correlated with age (r = -0.41, P < 0.001) and with serum NTx concentrations (r = -0.26, P < 0.001), but not with serum levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP). Years since menopause was also significantly correlated with SI (r = 0.40, P < 0.001). A significant increase in serum NTx concentration occurred at least a decade before a significant decline in SI was evident. In the total study group, 24% of the women had T-scores indicative of osteopenia and 9% had T-scores indicative of osteoporosis, based on US reference data. Although the reported current incidence of fracture is low in women in sub-Saharan West Africa, these data show that after menopause Nigerian women have a decline in bone quality and increase in bone turnover similar to North American Caucasian women.
Calcified Tissue International 06/2001; 68(5):277-84. DOI:10.1007/BF02390834 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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