Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF) has been expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST). The fusion protein was purified by one-step affinity chromatography on glutathione-agarose beads, and recombinant PD-ECGF was proteolytically cleaved with thrombin from its GST leader peptide to yield pure protein. Recombinant PD-ECGF stimulated [3H]methylthymidine uptake by endothelial cells in vitro; however, we were unable to detect stimulation of cell proliferation under a wide variety of conditions. We confirm that in accord with the recent report that PD-ECGF and human thymidine phosphorylase are products of the same gene [Furukawa, T., Yoshimura, A., Sumizawa, T., Haraguchi, M., & Akiyama, S. I. (1992) Nature 356, 668] recombinant PD-ECGF has thymidine phosphorylase activity comparable to that of E. coli thymidine phosphorylase. Further, E. coli thymidine phosphorylase was able to mimic the activity of recombinant PD-ECGF in the [3H]methylthymidine uptake assay, and it appears that recombinant PD-ECGF's effect on the uptake of thymidine by endothelial cells may be due to modulation of cellular thymidine pools. The mechanism by which PD-ECGF stimulates angiogenesis remains to be elucidated.
"PD-ECGF, an endothelial cell mitogen that was initially purified to homogeneity from human platelets, has chemotactic activity for endothelial cells in vitro and is angiogenic in vivo . PD-ECGF was shown to be identical to thymidine phosphorylase, an enzyme involved in pyrimidine nucleoside metabolism . PD-ECGF expression is elevated in several types of solid tumor including colon cancer [36, 37]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor angiogenesis is the result of an imbalance between positive and negative angiogenic factors released by tumor and host cells into the microenvironment of the neoplastic tissue. The stroma constitutes a large part of most solid tumors, and cancer-stromal cell interactions contribute functionally to tumor growth and metastasis. Activated fibroblasts and macrophages in tumor stroma play important roles in angiogenesis and tumor progression. In gastric cancer, tumor cells and stromal cells produce various angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-8, platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor, and angiopoietin. In addition, Helicobacter pylori infection increases tumor cell expression of metastasis-related genes including those encoding several angiogenic factors. We review the current understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis of human gastric cancer.
Journal of Oncology 03/2010; 2010(2):468725. DOI:10.1155/2010/468725
"In vivo, TFT is very dependent on TP activity, since adding TPI enhances bioavailability of TFT (Emura et al, 2005), which may favour the combination OHP-TFT, possibly leading to more DNA damage in cells and higher cytotoxicity. Secondly, TP is also known as PD-ECGF (Moghaddam and Bicknell, 1992; Sumizawa et al, 1993), which has stimulating properties on blood vessel formation in solid tumours (Takahashi et al, 1998). Previous studies showed that TPI inhibits blood vessel formation, thereby increasing apoptosis (Matsushita et al, 1999) and suppressing the formation of metastases (Takao et al, 2000). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxaliplatin (OHP) is an anticancer agent that acts by formation of Platinum-DNA (Pt-DNA) adducts resulting in DNA-strand breaks and is used for the treatment of colorectal cancer. The pyrimidine analog trifluorothymidine (TFT) forms together with a thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor (TPI) the anticancer drug formulation TAS-102, in which TPI enhances the bioavailability of TFT in vivo. In this in vitro study the combined cytotoxic effects of OHP with TFT were investigated in human colorectal cancer cells as a model for TAS-102 combinations. In a panel of five colon cancer cell lines (WiDr, H630, Colo320, SNU-C4 and SW1116) we evaluated the OHP-TFT drug combinations using the multiple drug-effect analysis with CalcuSyn software, in which the combination index (CI) indicates synergism (CI<0.9), additivity (CI=0.9-1.1) or antagonism (CI>1.1). Drug target analysis was used for WiDr, H630 and SW1116 to investigate whether there was an increase in Pt-DNA adduct formation, DNA damage induction, cell cycle delay and apoptosis. Trifluorothymidine combined with OHP resulted in synergism for all cell lines (all CI<0.9). This was irrespective of schedule in which either one of the drugs was kept at a constant concentration (using variable drug ratio) or when the two drugs were added in a 1 : 1 IC(50)-based molar ratio. Synergism could be increased for WiDr using sequential drug treatment schedules. Trifluorothymidine increased Pt-DNA adduct formation significantly in H630 and SW1116 (14.4 and 99.1%, respectively; P<0.05). Platinum-DNA adducts were retained best in SW1116 in the presence of TFT. More DNA-strand breaks were induced in SW1116 and the combination increased DNA damage induction (>20%) compared with OHP alone. Exposure to the drugs induced a clear cell-cycle S-phase arrest, but was dose schedule and cell line dependent. Trifluorothymidine (TFT) and OHP both induced apoptosis, which increased significantly for WiDr and SW1116 after TFT-OHP exposure (18.8 and 20.6% respectively; P<0.05). The basal protein levels of ERCC1 DNA repair enzyme were not related to the DNA damage that was induced in the cell lines. In conclusion, the combination of TFT with the DNA synthesis inhibitor OHP induces synergism in colorectal cancer cells, but is dependent on the dose and treatment schedule used.
British Journal of Cancer 02/2007; 96(2):231-40. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603549 · 4.84 Impact Factor
"Sequence analysis of the gene revealed a stretch of 120 amino acids to be identical to thymidine phosphorylase (TP), an enzyme catalysing the reversible phosphorolysis of thymidine to thymine and 2-deoxyribose-1-phos- phate (dR-1-P) (Furukawa et al, 1992). Subsequently, this enzymatic activity was identified for PD-ECGF (Moghaddam and Bicknell, 1992; Usuki et al, 1992). The two enzymes are considered to be identical and are designated as TP. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF)/thymidine phosphorylase (TP) catalyses the reversible phosphorolysis of thymidine to thymine and 2-deoxyribose-1-phosphate and is involved in the metabolism of fluoropyrimidines. It can also activate 5'-deoxyfluorouridine (5'DFUR) and possibly 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and Ftorafur (Ft), but inactivates trifluorothymidine (TFT). We studied the contribution of TP activity to the sensitivity for these fluoropyrimidines by modulating its activity and/or expression level in colon and lung cancer cells using a specific inhibitor of TP (TPI) or by overproduction of TP via stable transfection of human TP. Expression was analysed using competitive template-RT-PCR (CT-RT-PCR), Western blot and an activity assay. TP activity ranged from nondetectable to 70678 pmol h(-1) 10(-6) cells, in Colo320 and a TP overexpressing clone Colo320TP1, respectively. We found a good correlation between TP activity and mRNA expression (r=0.964, P&<0.01) in our cell panel. To determine the role of TP in the sensitivity to 5FU, 5'DFUR, Ft and TFT, cells were cultured with the various fluoropyrimidines with or without TPI and differences in IC(50)'s were established. TPI modified 5'DFUR, increasing the IC(50)'s 2.5- to 1396-fold in WiDR and Colo320TP1, respectively. 5-Fluorouracil could be modified by inhibiting TP but to a lesser extent than 5'DFUR: IC(50)'s increased 1.9- to 14.7-fold for WiDR and Colo320TP1, respectively. There was no effect on TFT or Ft. There appears to be a threshold level of TP activity to influence the 5'DFUR and 5FU sensitivity, which is higher for 5FU. Even high levels of TP overexpression only had a moderate effect on 5FU sensitivity.
British Journal of Cancer 03/2003; 88(6):957-64. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600808 · 4.84 Impact Factor
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