Cholesterol-lowering effects of calcium carbonate in patients with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia.
ABSTRACT In recent years, several authors have noted that oral calcium treatment was associated with a reduction in serum cholesterol level.
Calcium carbonate was examined for its ability to lower serum cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic patients. Fifty-six patients with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia were examined in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Patients were treated with a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet targeted at the American Heart Association Step-1 diet for 8 weeks before and while receiving placebo or calcium carbonate (9.98 mmol [400 mg] of elemental calcium) three times daily with meals for 6 weeks. Patients were then crossed over to the alternate treatment for an additional 6-week period.
Compared with placebo, calcium carbonate achieved a 4.4% reduction in the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and a 4.1% increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. The ratio of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly decreased by 6.5% with calcium carbonate treatment. Calcium carbonate treatment did not significantly affect blood pressure or serum levels of triglycerides, lipoprotein Apo B, or calcium. Relative urinary saturation ratios of calcium oxalate levels were unchanged during calcium carbonate therapy. Compliance with diet and treatment was excellent and no significant adverse effects were noted.
Thus, calcium carbonate was a modestly effective and well-tolerated adjunct to diet in the management of mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia in this clinical study.
Article: Is excess calcium harmful to health?[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Most current guidelines recommend that older adults and the elderly strive for a total calcium intake (diet and supplements) of 1,000 to 1,300 mg/day to prevent osteoporosis and fractures. Traditionally, calcium supplements have been considered safe, effective and well tolerated, but their safety has recently been questioned due to potential adverse effects on vascular disease which may increase mortality. For example, the findings from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (currently published in abstract form only) revealed that the use of calcium supplements was associated with an ~30% increased risk of myocardial infarction. If high levels of calcium are harmful to health, this may alter current public health recommendations with regard to the use of calcium supplements for preventing osteoporosis. In this review, we provide an overview of the latest information from human observational and prospective studies, randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses related to the effects of calcium supplementation on vascular disease and related risk factors, including blood pressure, lipid and lipoprotein levels and vascular calcification.Nutrients 05/2010; 2(5):505-22. · 0.68 Impact Factor
Article: Breadmaking performance and technological characteristicof gluten-free bread with inulin supplemented with calcium salts[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The fortiﬁcation of gluten-free bread containing inulin with different organic and non-organic calcium sources was investigated. Calcium lactate, calcium citrate, calcium chloride and calcium carbonate were used as calcium sources. Gluten-free bread composed of corn starch, potato starch, salt, yeast, pectin, sugar and sunﬂower oil was used as a reference. The calcium salts were supplemented to the gluten-free formula to provide equal content of elementary calcium (Ca2+). The Mixolab device was used to analyse the behaviour of gluten-free dough subjected to a dual mechanical shear stress and temperature constraint. Calcium salts signiﬁcantly modiﬁed the dough behaviour during heating and cooling. The addition of calcium carbonate and calcium citrate provoked an increase in dough consistency during heating and cooling compared with the other salt-enriched samples. The speciﬁc volume and texture parameters of gluten-free breads varied with the calcium salt used, but calcium carbonate and calcium citrate showed improved values. The higher calcium content of the enriched breads, compared with the control, conﬁrmed the fortiﬁcation. Sensory evaluation of the calcium-fortiﬁed breads conﬁrmed that calcium carbonate followed by calcium citrate was the most recommended salt for obtaining calcium fortiﬁcation of gluten-free breads.European Food Research and Technology 01/2012; 235(3):545-554. · 1.57 Impact Factor