Comparison of impedance cardiographic measurements using band and spot electrodes.
ABSTRACT The comprehensive assessment of cardiac function using impedance cardiography has led to increasingly widespread use of the technique in psychophysiology. Disposable adhesive band electrodes have been the most widely used electrode type, but spot electrode configurations present attractive alternatives in terms of convenience and subject comfort. The present study was designed to evaluate whether one such spot electrode configuration yielded the same information as the more standard band electrodes for cardiac output and systolic time interval measurement. Male and female healthy adult subjects (N = 20) were tested. Comparisons between spot and band electrodes were made for the absolute magnitude of cardiac output and systolic time intervals, as well as for responses to the highly reproducible effects of bicycle exercise. Consistent with previous findings, systolic time interval measurements were unaffected by electrode type. However, for cardiac output measurements, differences between spot and band electrode measurements were found. Under resting conditions, the absolute magnitudes of cardiac output values measured using spot electrodes were smaller than for band electrodes. Subtle, yet significant differences were also found for cardiac output responses to exercise, with spot electrodes indicating greater increases in cardiac output than band electrodes. At the same time, anticipated gender differences found for cardiac output at rest and in response to exercise were unaffected by electrode type. Overall, these findings suggest that when comparing the results of studies that have utilized different impedance electrode types, it would be prudent to remain alert to the possibility of confounding influences.
- SourceAvailable from: Jeffrey E. CassisiSchizophrenia Research 06/2008; 102(1-3):235. DOI:10.1016/S0920-9964(08)70709-6 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Autonomic nervous system activity is an important component of affective experience. We demonstrate in the rhesus monkey that both the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system respond differentially to the affective valence of passively viewed video stimuli. We recorded cardiac impedance and an electrocardiogram while adult macaques watched a series of 300 30-second videos that varied in their affective content. We found that sympathetic activity (as measured by cardiac pre-ejection period) increased and parasympathetic activity (as measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia) decreased as video content changes from positive to negative. These findings parallel the relationship between autonomic nervous system responsivity and valence of stimuli in humans. Given the relationship between human cardiac physiology and affective processing, these findings suggest that macaque cardiac physiology may be an index of affect in nonverbal animals.PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e71170. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0071170 · 3.53 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
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ABSTRACT: Provider communication styles in health encounters have links to patient health outcomes. The Social Cognitive Processing Model (SCPM) is a framework to understand how communication facilitating processing may produce different outcomes than communication directing patient behavior. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the linkages between communication behaviors and patient outcomes. Participants engaged in simulated health care interviews with either a facilitative or directive provider. Heart rate (HR), skin conductance level (SCL), communication, and participant self‐report measures were analyzed. Compared with those communicating with directive providers, participants communicating with facilitative providers were more satisfied and had lower HR and SCL, indicating lowered stress response. Consistent with SCPM, findings have implications for improved processing, which may impact patient outcomes.Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research 06/2012; 17(2). DOI:10.1111/j.1751-9861.2012.00080.x