The relationship between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity was examined in drug-free depressed (n = 32) and schizophrenic (n = 36) inpatients. HPA function was measured by determining plasma cortisol levels at 8:30 a.m. and 11 p.m. before, and 8:30 a.m., 4 p.m., and 11 p.m. after administration of 1 mg of dexamethasone (DEX). There was a significant correlation between platelet MAO activity and all post-DEX cortisol levels (8:30 a.m., 4 a.m., and 11 p.m.) in depressed patients, and MAO activity and pre-DEX cortisol levels (11 p.m.) in schizophrenic patients. MAO activity was significantly higher in depressed DST nonsuppressors than in suppressors, and there were more DST nonsuppressors in high-MAO groups as compared with low-MAO groups. Our results thus suggest a strong relationship between platelet MAO activity and HPA function in depressed patients. These biochemical markers are potentially useful in the identification of biochemically and clinically homogeneous subgroups of depressed patients.
"The primary causes of depression include depletion of monoamines, like serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine by monoamine oxidase overactivation, oxidative stress and hyperactivity of HPA-axis. There was a strong relationship between MAO activity and the HPA axis function in depressed patients . Stress has been observed to play an important role in the etiology of psychiatric disorders . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
In the present study, antidepressant-like activity of palmatine was evaluated in unstressed and stressed young male Swiss albino mice.
The animals were subjected to unpredictable mild stress daily for 21 successive days to induce depression-like behavior. Palmatine (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/kg, ip) was administered for 21 successive days to unstressed and stressed mice. The antidepressant-like activity was evaluated using the tail suspension test, forced swim test and sucrose preference test.
Palmatine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, ip) significantly decreased immobility periods of unstressed and stressed mice in the forced swim test and tail suspension test, thus indicating its significant antidepressant-like activity. Only the highest dose (1 mg/kg) of palmatine significantly reversed the stress-induced decrease in sucrose preference. There was no significant effect on locomotor activity of the mice by palmatine and fluoxetine. The antidepressant-like activity of palmatine was found to be comparable to fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) administered for successive 21 days. Palmatine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, ip) significantly reversed the stress-induced increase in brain catalase levels, MAO-A activity, lipid peroxidation, plasma nitrite and corticosterone levels.
Palmatine showed significant antidepressant-like activity in unstressed and stressed mice probably through inhibition of MAO-A activity, decrease in plasma nitrite levels and due to its antioxidant activity. In addition, palmatine also showed antidepressant-like activity in stressed mice probably through decrease in plasma corticosterone levels.
"Oxidation of catecholamines such as dopamine and norepinephrine by monoamine oxidase (MAO) may result in increased radical burden (Herken et al., 2007). Controlled studies pointed that MAO enzyme activity increases in patients with major depression (Pandey et al., 1992), suggesting an association between monoamine oxidation and overproduction of "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ebselen [2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one] is a seleno-organic compound which possesses a potent antioxidant activity and has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo in a variety of pro-oxidative insults. The present study investigates a possible antidepressant activity of ebselen using two predictive tests for antidepressant activity in rodents: the forced swimming test and tail suspension test. Additionally, the mechanisms involved in the antidepressant-like effect of ebselen in mice were also assessed. Ebselen (10 mg/kg, s.c.) decreased the immobility time in the forced swimming test without accompanying changes in ambulation in the open-field test. In contrast, the administration of ebselen (10-30 mg/kg) did not produce any effect in the tail suspension test. The anti-immobility effect of ebselen (10 mg/kg, s.c.) was not prevented by pre-treatment of mice with p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 100 mg/kg, i.p., an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, 4 consecutive days), NAN-190 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p., a serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist) or ketanserin (5 mg/kg, i.p., a serotonin 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor antagonist). On the other hand, the pre-treatment of mice with prazosin (1 mg/kg, i.p., an alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist), yohimbine (1 mg/kg, i.p., an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist), SCH23390 (0.05 mg/kg, s.c., a dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist) or sulpiride (50 mg/kg, i.p., a dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist) completely blocked the antidepressant-like effect of ebselen (10 mg/kg, s.c.) in the forced swimming test. It may be concluded that ebselen produces an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test that seems to be dependent on its interaction with the noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems, but not with the serotonergic system.
European journal of pharmacology 12/2008; 602(1):85-91. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.10.055 · 2.53 Impact Factor
"In another study, it was suggested that patients with major depression, especially melancholic, were associated with elevated antioxidant enzyme levels and lipid peroxidation (Bilici et al. 2001). Controlled studies reveal elevated MAO activity in patients with major depression (Pandey et al. 1992). Therefore, this relationship may account for the efficacy of MAO inhibitors in depressive disorders. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A growing body of evidence indicates that oxidative stress is involved in the etiopathogenesis of some psychiatric disorders. In our previous study, we have found that social phobia (SP) seems to be associated with elevated antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, a lipid peroxidation product. In the present investigation, we sought to determine whether the increased radical burden observed in patients with SP would be attenuated with alleviation of symptoms. Thirty-nine patients diagnosed with generalized SP and 39 healthy controls participated in this study. The measurements of MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) were performed before and after a period of 8 weeks of citalopram treatment. In this period, the patients received citalopram but controls did not. The initial dose of citalopram was 20mg, with 20 mg increments occurring every 2 weeks, to a maximum dose of 60 mg, with the mean daily dose of 38.9 +/- 13.3 mg/day. All patients were evaluated by using Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). The mean MDA, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT levels of the patient group at baseline were significantly higher than those of controls. Antioxidant enzymes and MDA levels decrease significantly through citalopram treatment. Significant and positive correlation was observed between decrease in the total LSAS scores, and SOD or CAT levels. In conclusion, our results suggest that, in patients with SP, subchronic treatment with citalopram may decrease antioxidant enzymes and MDA values and that they are state markers of SP because they return to normal values with treatment.
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 09/2004; 254(4):231-5. DOI:10.1007/s00406-004-0484-3 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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