An overview of renal pathology in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in relationship to altered glomerular hemodynamics.
ABSTRACT Clinical diabetic nephropathy in man is the consequence of the development of a specific constellation of glomerular, tubular, vascular, and interstitial structural abnormalities accompanied by highly characteristic immunohistochemical alterations that, together, are unique to diabetes. Because changes resembling the specific pathology of diabetes do not develop in patients with conditions that lead to long-standing glomerular hyperfunction (such as unilateral nephrectomy), it is unlikely that glomerular hemodynamic abnormalities per se can be the cause of diabetic nephropathy. Whether hemodynamic abnormalities represent a risk factor that, in the presence of the diabetic state, can accelerate the rate of development of the basic lesions of diabetic nephropathy is currently unclear. However, there is considerable evidence that when the renal lesions of diabetes are far advanced, factors such as systemic hypertension can determine the rate of renal functional deterioration in diabetes as in other disorders. Although the diabetic rat may be a useful model for the study of aspects of the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, much confusion has resulted from the inclusion of focal segmental glomerular sclerosis as a diabetic lesion. Similarly, the acceptance of all increases in urinary protein excretions in this model as resulting from or reflecting of diabetic nephropathology can be misleading. It is concluded that treatment aimed at manipulating renal hemodynamics in diabetic patients without evidence of renal disease should remain in the realm of clinical research.
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ABSTRACT: Much new information on C-peptide physiology has appeared during the past 20 years. It has been shown that C-peptide binds specifically to cell membranes, elicits intracellular signaling via G-protein and Ca2+-dependent pathways, resulting in activation and increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, Na+, K+-ATPase and several transcription factors of importance for anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and cell protective mechanisms. Studies in animal models of diabetes and early clinical trials in patients with type 1 diabetes demonstrate that C-peptide in replacement doses elicits beneficial effects on early stages of diabetes-induced functional and structural abnormalities of the peripheral nerves, the kidneys and the retina. Much remains to be learned about C-peptidés mechanism of action and long-term clinical trials in type 1 diabetes subjects will be required to determine C-peptidés clinical utility. Nevertheless, even a cautious evaluation of the available evidence presents the picture of a bioactive endogenous peptide with therapeutic potentialDiabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 01/2015;
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ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major complication of diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. DN is characterized by changes in kidney structure and function but the underlying genetic and molecular factors are poorly understood. We used a mouse diversity panel to explore the genetic basis of DN traits in mice carrying the Ins2 Akita mutation. Twenty-eight Akita strains were generated by breeding this panel to DBA/2.Akita mice. Male F1 diabetic and nondiabetic littermates were evaluated for DN-related traits. Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratios (ACRs), volume and cystatin C as well as blood urea nitrogen and lipoprotein levels varied significantly among the diabetic strains. For most Akita strains, ACR values increased 2- to 6-fold over euglycemic control values. However, six strains exhibited changes in ACR exceeding 10-fold with two strains (NOD/ShiLt and CBA) showing 50- to 83- fold increases. These increases are larger than previously reported among available DN mouse models establishing these strains as useful for additional studies of renal function. ACRs correlated with cystatin C (P = 0.0286), a measure of hyperfiltration and an interstitial tubular marker associated with DN onset in humans suggesting that tubule damage as well as podocyte-stress contributed to reduced kidney function assessed by ACR. Although large changes were seen for ACRs, severe nephropathology was absent. However, glomerular hypertrophy and collagen IV content were found to vary significantly among strains suggesting a genetic basis for early onset features of DN. Our results define the range of DN phenotypes that occur among common inbred strains of mice.Physiological Reports. 11/2014; 2(11).
- SEMERGEN - Medicina de Familia 01/2012; Semergen 2012(38 (Supl 1)).