Rheumatoid cachexia: depletion of lean body mass in rheumatoid arthritis. Possible association with tumor necrosis factor.
ABSTRACT To investigate body composition and serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels in a series of 24 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Body composition assessment by anthropometric measures and bioelectrical impedance. Cytokine determination in serum by ELISA:
When compared to United States population norms, 16 of the subjects (67%) were cachectic. In regression models, lean body mass (LBM) was inversely associated with the number of swollen joints (p < 0.025). Elevated TNF-alpha was found in 3 of 5 flaring patients vs 0 of 18 patients with less active disease (p = 0.001). These 3 were all cachectic, while the 2 flaring patients without detectable TNF had normal LBM (p < 0.03). Among the whole group, there was a trend toward increasing disability with decreased LBM after adjusting for joint pain and disease duration (p < 0.07).
Cachexia is common in RA, and may be cytokine driven. Given the prognostic impact of LBM wasting in other diseases, the effect of rheumatoid cachexia on outcome in RA deserves further study.
SourceAvailable from: Ahmet Yigit Goktay[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increased body fat, particularly its central distribution, is a well-known risk factor for CVD. A change in body composition in RA has been described previously. However, in most of these studies, age- and sex- but not body mass index (BMI)-matched controls were used. The aim of this study was to evaluate body composition in RA patients and compare it with age-, sex-, and BMI-matched controls. Material and Methods: Sixty-five RA patients (55 females and 10 males; mean age 54.9 ± 10.8) and 31 healthy controls (25 females, 6 males; 53.8±8.6) were included in this study. Mean disease duration was 9.2±9.6 years. Body composition was assessed by anthropometric methods (skinfold thicknesses, body circumferences), bioimpedance analysis, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was assessed with computed tomography. Results: There were no significant differences for total body fatness, regional fat distribution, and total body water and fat-free mass between RA patients and control subjects. Bone mineral content (BMC), assessed by DXA, was significantly lower in RA patients (p=0.004). Clinical disease activity indices and steroid treatment do not affect soft tissue body composition or BMC. Conclusion: At least some RA patients do not have soft tissue composition alterations and may have similar health risks in comparison with subjects with similar age, sex, and total adiposity.09/2014; 1:106-110. DOI:10.5152/eurjrheumatol.2014.035
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ABSTRACT: Background/AimsIncreased resting energy expenditure (REE) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients is thought to be caused by hypermetabolism associated with production of proinflammatory cytokines. Our aim in the present study was to explore the possible association between REE and disease activity in females with RA.MethodsA total of 499 female RA patients were recruited to this cross-sectional study assessing REE scores on disease activity indices (the routine assessment of patient index data 3 [RAPID3], the disease activity score 28, and the clinical/simplified disease activity index [CDAI/SDAI]) and the levels of RA-associated autoantibodies (rheumatoid factor and anticyclic citrullinated peptide [anti-CCP] antibodies). Age-matched healthy female controls (n = 131) were also enrolled.ResultsREE did not differ between RA patients (all patients, and those in remission or not) and controls, or between RA patients in remission or not (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). Increased REE in total RA patients was associated with younger age and a higher body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively), but not with disease activity index scores on any of RAPID3, CDAI, or SDAI. BMI was the only clinical parameter exhibiting a significant relationship with REE quartiles (Q1 to Q4; p < 0.001); none of disease duration, functional status, or anti-CCP antibody titer in RA patients was significantly related to REE, based on analysis of covariance.ConclusionsWe found no association between REE and disease activity in RA patients, implying that energy metabolism in RA patients might be independent of RA-associated systemic inflammation.The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 07/2014; 29(4):516-24. DOI:10.3904/kjim.2014.29.4.516
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ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are inflammatory rheumatic diseases that may modify body composition. Adipose tissue has the ability to release a wide range of products involved in physiologic functions, but also in various pathological processes, including the inflammatory/immune response. RA and AS are both associated with the development of cardiovascular complications. It is has been established that central/abdominal, and particularly intra-abdominal or visceral adiposity is closely linked to cardiovascular events. Thus, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the body composition of patients with RA or AS compared to healthy controls (HC), with a special emphasis on the visceral region. In parallel, we measured adipose products or adipokines, namely leptin, adiponectin and its high molecular weight (HMW) isoform, resistin, and ghrelin, a gastric peptide that plays a role in energetic balance. The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and atherogenic index were used to evaluate cardiovascular risk. One hundred and twelve subjects were enrolled (30 patients with RA, 31 with AS, and 51 HC). Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine total fat mass and lean mass, adiposity, fat in the android and gynoid regions, and visceral fat. Patients and HC did not differ in terms of body mass index. On the contrary, adiposity was increased in RA (p = 0.01) while visceral fat was also increased, but only in women (p = 0.01). Patients with AS tended to have lower total fat mass (p = 0.07) and higher lean mass compared to HC (p = 0.07). Leptin and leptin/fat mass were decreased in male patients with AS (p < 0.01), while total adiponectin and the ratio of HMW to total adiponectin were both increased in RA (p < 0.01). There were no changes in serum resistin and ghrelin in any group of patients. HOMA-IR and the atherogenic index were not modified in RA and AS. These results confirm that body composition was altered in RA and AS, affecting distinct soft tissue compartments. The effect of the increased visceral adipose tissue on cardiovascular risk is presumably attenuated by the favorable cardiometabolic profile in women with RA, as suggested by the normal HOMA-IR and atherogenic index.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2013; 4:453. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2013.00453