A trichothecene mycotoxin, T-2 toxin, inhibits several aspects of cellular physiology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including protein synthesis and mitochondrial functions. We have studied growth of, glucose utilization by, and ethanol production by S. cerevisiae and show that they are inhibited by T-2 toxin between 20 and 200 micrograms/ml in a dose-dependent manner. At 200 micrograms/ml, T-2 toxin causes cell death. This apparent inhibition of ethanol production was found to be the result of growth inhibition. On the basis of biomass or glucose consumption, T-2 toxin increased the amount of ethanol present in the culture. This suggests that T-2 inhibits oxidative but not fermentative energy metabolism by inhibiting mitochondrial function and shifting glucose catabolism toward ethanol formation. As T-2 toxin does not directly inhibit ethanol production by S. cerevisiae, this system could be used for ethanol production from trichothecene-contaminated grain products.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Fusarium mycotoxins zearalenone (ZEA) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) added to the growth medium in low and high concentrations, were investigated as a possible cause of inhibition of growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lager and ale strains. Toxic effects were assessed by measurement of dry weight or growth relative to controls, cell number, viability and conductance changes of the growth medium using indirect and direct methods. The Fusarium mycotoxins studied affected growth on brewing yeasts, but the inhibitory effect was dependent on concentration. Low concentrations (0.1–2 μg/ml) had no significant effect on growth compared to controls. Although high concentrations of both mycotoxins strongly affected growth, the inhibitory effect depended on toxin concentration and type, yeast strain, length of incubation and method used to assess growth. The lowest concentrations of mycotoxin causing significant inhibition on growth of these brewing yeasts were 50 μg/ml ZEA for both yeast strains, and 10 μg/ml FB1 for the lager strain and 50 μg/ml for the ale strain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to study the influence of mycotoxins on the production of alcohols, a fermentative process on a laboratorial scale was simulated. Malt was contaminated with deoxynivalenol and T-2 in different ratios (up to 500 ppb), according to a 3² factorial design, and the alcohols obtained after the fermentation were determined through gas chromatography. The results showed that trichothecenes influenced the profile of the alcohols produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the fermentative process of malt, especially the profile of methyl and isoamyl alcohols.
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 01/2003; 46(4). DOI:10.1590/S1516-89132003000400013 · 0.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several metabolic properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) serve special functions, which directly or indirectly have impact on processes such as improved quality and safety and flavour devel-opment in the malting and brewing industry. LAB are widely distributed in nature and in spontaneous fermentations, often they are found to be the dominating microflora resulting in both the inhibition of spoilage bacteria and organisms. This review de-scribes the applications of LAB in malting and brewing. Myco-toxins are naturally occurring toxic secondary metabolites of fungi that may be present in cereals. Several of these mycotoxins have been associated with human and animal diseases and are known to survive the brewing process. LAB have been shown to restrict the growth of the most important toxigenic fungi thereby reducing the formation of these harmful toxins. The occurrence of mycotoxins in cereals is discussed and their effect in beer is reviewed. The main features of this review are: (I) LAB starter cultures in malting and brewing (II) production of acid malt; (III) biological acidification of mash and wort in brewing; (IV) bacteriocins produced by LAB in brewing; (V) LAB and anti-fungal activity; (VI) mycotoxins in cereals.
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