Effects of T-2 toxin on ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
ABSTRACT A trichothecene mycotoxin, T-2 toxin, inhibits several aspects of cellular physiology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including protein synthesis and mitochondrial functions. We have studied growth of, glucose utilization by, and ethanol production by S. cerevisiae and show that they are inhibited by T-2 toxin between 20 and 200 micrograms/ml in a dose-dependent manner. At 200 micrograms/ml, T-2 toxin causes cell death. This apparent inhibition of ethanol production was found to be the result of growth inhibition. On the basis of biomass or glucose consumption, T-2 toxin increased the amount of ethanol present in the culture. This suggests that T-2 inhibits oxidative but not fermentative energy metabolism by inhibiting mitochondrial function and shifting glucose catabolism toward ethanol formation. As T-2 toxin does not directly inhibit ethanol production by S. cerevisiae, this system could be used for ethanol production from trichothecene-contaminated grain products.
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ABSTRACT: In order to study the influence of mycotoxins on the production of alcohols, a fermentative process on a laboratorial scale was simulated. Malt was contaminated with deoxynivalenol and T-2 in different ratios (up to 500 ppb), according to a 3² factorial design, and the alcohols obtained after the fermentation were determined through gas chromatography. The results showed that trichothecenes influenced the profile of the alcohols produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the fermentative process of malt, especially the profile of methyl and isoamyl alcohols.Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 01/2003; DOI:10.1590/S1516-89132003000400013 · 0.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several metabolic properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) serve special functions, which directly or indirectly have impact on processes such as improved quality and safety and flavour devel-opment in the malting and brewing industry. LAB are widely distributed in nature and in spontaneous fermentations, often they are found to be the dominating microflora resulting in both the inhibition of spoilage bacteria and organisms. This review de-scribes the applications of LAB in malting and brewing. Myco-toxins are naturally occurring toxic secondary metabolites of fungi that may be present in cereals. Several of these mycotoxins have been associated with human and animal diseases and are known to survive the brewing process. LAB have been shown to restrict the growth of the most important toxigenic fungi thereby reducing the formation of these harmful toxins. The occurrence of mycotoxins in cereals is discussed and their effect in beer is reviewed. The main features of this review are: (I) LAB starter cultures in malting and brewing (II) production of acid malt; (III) biological acidification of mash and wort in brewing; (IV) bacteriocins produced by LAB in brewing; (V) LAB and anti-fungal activity; (VI) mycotoxins in cereals.01/2004; 110(110):163-180. DOI:10.1002/j.2050-0416.2004.tb00199.x
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ABSTRACT: Fusarium infections in grains can have severe effects on malt and beer. While some degree of Fusarium mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol, present in infected barley may be lost during steeping, the Fusarium mold is still capable of growth and mycotoxin production during steeping, germination and kilning. Therefore, detoxification of grain before malting may not be practical unless further growth of the mold is also prevented. Methods to reduce the amount of mold growth during malting are needed. Physical, chemical and biological methods are reviewed. Irradiation looks very promising as a means to prevent Fusarium growth during malting, but the effect on the surviving mold to produce mycotoxins and the effect on malt quality needs further study. Chemical treatments such as ozonation, which would not leave residual chemical in the beer also appear to be promising. Although biological control methods may be desirable, due to the use of "natural" inhibition, the effects of these inhibitors on malt and beer quality requires further investigation. It may also be possible to incorporate detoxifying genes into fermentation yeasts, which would result in detoxification of the wort when mold growth is no longer a problem. Development of these types of technological interventions should help improve the safety of products, such as beer, made from Fusarium infected grain.International Journal of Food Microbiology 11/2007; 119(1-2):89-94. DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.07.030 · 3.16 Impact Factor