Barceló F, Rubia FJ. Non-frontal P3b-like activity evoked by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Neuroreport 9: 747-751

Department of Psychobiology, Faculty of Psychology, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain.
Neuroreport (Impact Factor: 1.52). 03/1998; 9(4):747-751. DOI: 10.1097/00001756-199803090-00034
Source: PubMed


EVENT related potentials (ERP) were recorded from 29 electrode positions in 10 normal subjects while they performed a simplified version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The design focused on ERP differences between early and late trials within each WCST series. Topographic and dipole analyses confirmed the reliability of two ERP signs: one conspicuous mid-parietal P3b wave and one asymmetrical frontal-temporal component. A three-dipole model accounted for these ERP signs with >90% accuracy even in individual subjects, and suggests a sub-second activation of temporal-parietal and medial temporal association areas during card sorting. The WCST-related P3b wave is proposed to reflect working memory operations such as template matching and template formation during card sorting.

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    • "Therefore, the present study uses a Go/NoGo task. A number of studies analyzed event-related potentials (ERP [14] [15]) to study the brain basis of ADHD. "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research investigating attention and impulse control in individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has largely ignored the symptomatic differences among the three subtypes of ADHD: ADHD-Inattentive Type, ADHD-Hyperactive/Impulsive Type, and ADHD-Combined Type. The present study examined attention and impulse control by focusing on these subtypes. Based on their self-reported symptoms of ADHD, participants belonged to one of four groups: ADHD-Inattentive, ADHD-Hyperactive/Impulsive, ADHD-Combined, and control. Cortical activity was recorded from participants during performance of a Go/NoGo task. The event-related potentials (ERP) measured at frontal and posterior sites discriminated between the control group and participants with symptoms of ADHD. The control group consistently exhibited a higher P3 amplitude than all the ADHD groups. The main difference occurred at the frontal site, indicating that individuals with ADHD symptoms have deficits in the anterior attentional system, which mediates signal detection. Behavioral measures of signal sensitivity revealed that the ADHD-Inattentive and the ADHD-Hyperactive/Impulsive groups had more difficulty with the attention-demanding Go/NoGo respond-to-target task, while behavioral measures of response bias indicated that the ADHD-Hyperactive/Impulsive and the ADHD-Combined groups responded more liberally in the inhibition-demanding Go/NoGo suppress-to-target task.
    Behavioural neurology 02/2007; 18(2):115-30. DOI:10.1155/2007/865717 · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    • "Despite the dense anatomical connections between the prefrontal cortex and the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) (Cavada and Goldman-Rakic, 1989; Petrides and Pandya, 1984), however, the parietal contribution to set shifting is controversial. A number of neuroimaging studies have reported that the PPC is activated in association with cognitive set shifting or task switching (Barcelo and Rubia, 1998; Brass and von Cramon, 2002, 2004; Braver et al., 2003; Cools et al., 2004; Dove et al., 2000; Gurd et al., 2002; Kimberg et al., 2000; Konishi et al., 2002, 2003; Monchi et al., 2001, 2004; Pollmann et al., 2000; Rogers et al., 2000; Rushworth et al., 2001; Sohn et al., 2000; Stoet and Snyder, 2004; Weidner et al., 2002). This forms a marked contrast to the relative paucity of prior neuropsychological reports that support parietal contribution to set shifting (Fox et al., 2003; Mountain and Snow, 1980). "
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    ABSTRACT: Posterior parietal activation has commonly been observed in previous neuroimaging studies in association with flexible shifting of cognitive set. However, it is not clear whether the parietal activation reflects cognitive processes intrinsic to the shifting itself or other confounding factors such as spatial attention. To address this issue, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) was modified such that spatial components were eliminated from the sensory and motor aspects of the task. Moreover, a visual instruction of a next dimension was introduced to eliminate cognitive processes related to trial and error identification of a next rule, and a control null-instruction was also introduced to eliminate perceptual/oddball effects of the instruction cue. Localizer scans using a visually guided saccade task were also conducted to identify eye movement/spatial attention-related areas. Activity related to set shifting with trial and error was revealed in the lateral parts of the intraparietal regions, while activity related to eye movements/spatial attention was revealed in the medial parts of the intraparietal regions, confirming little spatial contribution to the modified WCST as indexed by the double dissociation. The lateral intraparietal activity was bilateral, but when the instructed shifting was contrasted with the null-instructed shifting to purify the shift-related activity further, the left intraparietal activation was significantly greater than that in the right hemisphere. These results reveal the left hemisphere dominance of purified shifting-related activity in the lateral posterior parietal cortex that may cooperate with the lateral prefrontal cortex whose left hemisphere dominance has already been reported.
    NeuroImage 08/2005; 26(3):694-702. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.12.063 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    • "However, in spite of the apparent relationship to laterality, the WCST has not yet been combined with electrophysiological methods in studies of laterality in schizophrenics. Studies using this complex cognitive task can be designed to evoke eventrelated potentials (ERPs) in frontal, temporal, central and parietal areas (Barceló and Rubia, 1998), allowing 0920-9964/02/$ -see front matter D 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/S0920-9964(02)00236-0 "
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    ABSTRACT: There is much evidence of frontotemporal lateralized abnormalities in schizophrenia. However, the relationship has not yet been examined between performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, with supposed anterior left dominance and event-related potential (ERP) asymmetry. ERPs recorded at homologous bilateral sites were compared using statistical permutation methods. Patients had an unexpected abnormal lateralization over occipital regions, preceding slow anterior potentials. This indicates a defect in early stages of information processing, which may contribute to prevent further hemispheric lateralization during performance.
    Schizophrenia Research 07/2003; 61(2-3):229-33. DOI:10.1016/S0920-9964(02)00236-0 · 3.92 Impact Factor
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