Conservation genetics of two endangered unionid bivalve species: Epioblasma florentina walkeri and Epioblasma capsaeformis (Unionidae: Lampsilini)

Journal Molluscan Studies (Impact Factor: 1.5). 01/2002; 68:385-391.
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Available from: Jeanne Serb, Aug 14, 2015
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    • "The ITS1 region and portions of the cox1, and nad1 genes were amplifi ed. Primers for cox1 were 5′-GTTCCACAAATCAT AAGGATATTGG-3′ and 5′-TACACCTCAGGGTGACC AAAAA ACCA-3′, adapted from Folmer et al. (1994); primers for nadh1 were 5′-TGGCAGAAAAGTGCATCAGATTTA AGC-3′ and 5′-GCTATTAGTAGGTCGTATCG-3′ (Buhay et al. 2002, Serb and Lydeard 2003); and primers for ITS1 were 5' "
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    ABSTRACT: The genus Fusconaia Simpson, 1900, as currently recognized, includes ~12 species in the tribe Pleurobemini. Two species are federally listed and several more are imperiled in part or all of their ranges; one species is probably extinct. However, classification at the species and genus level has been problematic, and it is unknown whether imperiled populations represent merely local ecophenotypic variations or endemic species. To provide additional evidence on the systematics of this group and to help establish conservation priorities, we sequenced two mitochondrial genes for all available species of Fusconaia as well as representatives of other genera of Pleurobemini and several outgroups. Both cox1 and nad1 provided well-resolved phytogenies. Some putative species show little molecular differentiation, supporting their synonymization. In particular, Fusconaia flava (Rafinesque, 1820), F. cerina (Conrad, 1838), and the easternmost populations previously assigned to F. askewi (Marsh, 1896) are not differentiated by our data. Although the majority of Fusconaia places in a well-supported clade that includes F. flava, the type species, others do not. “Fusconaia” barnesiana (Lea, 1838), the type of Pleuronaia Frierson, 1927, places with “Lexingtonia” dollabelloides (Lea, 1840) and “Pleurobema” gibberum (Lea, 1838). “Fusconaia” ebenus (Lea, 1831) and “F.” rotulata (Wright, 1899) form a distinct clade outside of Pleurobemini. “Fusconaia” succissa (Lea, 1852) is assigned to the pustulosa group of Quadrula (subgenus Rotundaria), along with Quincuncina infucata (Conrad, 1834). Conversely, the type species of Quincuncina, Quincuncina burkei Walker, 1922, is assigned to Fusconaia. Populations in the Ozark region assigned to F. flava and populations in the Suwannee River system assigned to Quincuncina infucata probably deserve species-level recognition.
    American Malacological Bulletin 02/2012; DOI:10.4003/006.030.0101 · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    • "The ITS1 region and portions of the cox1 and nad1 genes were amplifi ed. Primers for cox1 were 5′-GTTCCACAAATCATAAGGATATTGG-3′ and 5′-TAC ACCTCAGGGTGACCAAAAAACCA-3′, adapted from Folmer et al. (1994); primers for nadh1 were 5′-TGGCA GAAAAGTGCATCAGATTTAAGC-3′ and 5′-GCTATTAGTA GGTCGTATCG-3′ (Buhay et al. 2002, Serb and Lydeard 2003); and primers for ITS1 were 5'-AAAAAGCTTCCG TAGGTGAACCTGCG-3' and 5'-AGCTTGCTGCGTTCTT CATCG-3' (King et al. 1999). For members of the Quadrulini, the primer LoGlyR (5'-CCTGCTTGGAAGGCAAGTGT ACT-3') (Serb, Buhay et al. 2003) often worked better as a reverse primer for nadh1. "
    American Malacological Bulletin 02/2012; 30(1):19-38. DOI:10.4003/006.030.0102 · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    • "The best sampling practice involves dredging (Dreyer et al., 2003) or hand collection by snorkelling or Scuba diving (Elderkin et al., 2007; Arnaud-Haond et al., 2005). When sampling of the whole specimen is not allowed for conservation reasons, i.e. critically endangered (CR), endangered (E), vulnerable (VU), or near threatened (NT) (IUCN, 2010) species, at least three non-destructive tissue-sample methods can be applied: 1)mantel biopsy (Berg et al., 1995; Buhay et al., 2002; Grobler et al., 2005; Kochzius and Nuryanto, 2008); 2) ligament biopsy (Doherty et al., 2007); 3) swabbing the foot and viscera of bivalves (Henley et al., 2006). This third procedure was found to be more successful both for obtaining DNA and guaranteeing the bivalve survival. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a literature review concerning the importance of molecular approaches in bivalve's population study. The class Bivalvia counts more than 20,000 species with a wide distribution both in freshwater and marine environment. Given their importance especially in aquaculture as a source of food, they have also a strong economic impact upon human society. This review encompasses best practices in bivalve studies from field sampling to laboratory analyses, addressing questions about molecular methods and tools commonly used by specialized researchers. Molecular tools specifically deals with phylogeography, population genetics, biology, ecology and taxonomy. In all these fields, molecular markers play an important role by completing some unanswered questions such as the role of the bivalves in the ecosystems in relation to anthropogenic and global change issues. Numerous genetic markers were developed for specific problems, thereferore we identify as a major issue the absence of uniform and universally recognized methods. The various sections of the paper emphasize from peer reviewed literature literature which are considered the most useful markers, costs and benefits of different methodology, major gaps of bivalve population studies. By reviewing virtually all genetic markers employed during nearly half a century of bivalve molecular research, in our opinion two are the best option "tools: the mitochondrial COI (cytochrome oxidase subunit I) and nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2).
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