Daptomycin non-susceptibility in vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) and heterogeneous-VISA (hVISA): implications for therapy after vancomycin treatment failure
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between reduced vancomycin and daptomycin susceptibility among Australasian vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) and heterogeneous-VISA (hVISA) isolates from patients never exposed to daptomycin. METHODS: Forty-seven stored clinical isolates of hVISA/VISA collected before November 2008 from around Australia and New Zealand were selected. Daptomycin and vancomycin MIC testing was performed using broth microdilution (BMD) and Etest methods. Daptomycin population analysis was performed on a subset of isolates. RESULTS: The percentage of daptomycin non-susceptible isolates was 0% for vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA) (Etest and BMD), for hVISA it was 26% by Etest and 15% by BMD, and for VISA 62% by Etest and 38% by BMD. Population analysis profile testing demonstrated daptomycin heteroresistance among the hVISA and VISA strains tested. CONCLUSIONS: This is the highest rate of daptomycin non-susceptibility reported among hVISA isolates to date. Clinicians should exhibit caution when using daptomycin in situations where serious hVISA or VISA infection is a possibility.
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ABSTRACT: Daptomycin (DAP) is increasingly used as a part of combination therapy, particularly in complex methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. While multiple studies have reported the potential for synergy between DAP and adjunctive anti-infectives, few have examined the influence of adjunctive therapy on the emergence of DAP resistance. This study examined eight adjunctive antimicrobial combinations with DAP in vitro and the emergence of DAP resistance over time (up to 4 weeks) using clinical isolates of DAP-susceptible MRSA (MIC, 0.5 μg/ml) in which DAP resistance subsequently developed during patient therapy (MIC, 3 μg/ml). In addition to DAP susceptibility testing, selected strains were examined for phenotypic changes associated with DAP resistance, including changes to cell wall thickness (CWT) and cell membrane alterations. The addition of either oxacillin or clarithromycin in medium containing DAP significantly inhibited the development of DAP resistance through the entirety of the 4-week exposure (10- to 32-fold MIC reduction from that of DAP alone). Combinations with rifampin or fosfomycin were effective in delaying the emergence of DAP resistance through the end of week one only (week one MIC, 0.5 μg/ml; week four MIC, 24 μg/ml). Cell wall thickening was observed for all antibiotic combinations regardless of their effect on the DAP MIC (14 to 70% increase in CWT), while changes in cell membrane fluidity were variable and treatment dependent. DAP showed reduced activity against strains with DAP MICs of 1 to 12 μg/ml, but cell membrane integrity was still disrupted at concentrations achieved with doses greater than 10 mg/kg of body weight. The emergence of DAP resistance in MRSA is strongly influenced by the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of adjunctive antimicrobials. These data suggest that combining DAP with oxacillin or clarithromycin may delay the development of DAP resistance in cases requiring prolonged antibiotic therapy.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 07/2012; 56(10):5046-53. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is a major public health threat, compounded by emergence of strains with resistance to vancomycin and daptomycin, both last line antimicrobials. Here we have performed high throughput DNA sequencing and comparative genomics for five clinical pairs of vancomycin-susceptible (VSSA) and vancomycin-intermediate ST239 S. aureus (VISA); each pair isolated before and after vancomycin treatment failure. These comparisons revealed a frequent pattern of mutation among the VISA strains within the essential walKR two-component regulatory locus involved in control of cell wall metabolism. We then conducted bi-directional allelic exchange experiments in our clinical VSSA and VISA strains and showed that single nucleotide substitutions within either walK or walR lead to co-resistance to vancomycin and daptomycin, and caused the typical cell wall thickening observed in resistant clinical isolates. Ion Torrent genome sequencing confirmed no additional regulatory mutations had been introduced into either the walR or walK VISA mutants during the allelic exchange process. However, two potential compensatory mutations were detected within putative transport genes for the walK mutant. The minimal genetic changes in either walK or walR also attenuated virulence, reduced biofilm formation, and led to consistent transcriptional changes that suggest an important role for this regulator in control of central metabolism. This study highlights the dramatic impacts of single mutations that arise during persistent S. aureus infections and demonstrates the role played by walKR to increase drug resistance, control metabolism and alter the virulence potential of this pathogen.PLoS Pathogens 11/2011; 7(11):e1002359. · 8.14 Impact Factor