An epidemiological approach to the etiology of middle ear disease in The Netherlands.
ABSTRACT The etiology of middle ear disease in Nijmegen, The Netherlands was studied on the basis of a data set collected in a prospective epidemiological study on otitis media with effusion (OME) in a cohort of 1439 preschool children. A factor analysis was used to evaluate two hypotheses: (1) that OME, acute otitis media (AOM), common cold and tonsillitis are manifestations of the same pathological entity, and (2) that a group of children can be distinguished who develop these conditions more frequently than average. The results only partly supported these hypotheses. The correlation between OME, AOM, common cold and tonsillitis was lower than expected from a review of the literature. Common cold appeared to be the ubiquitous ENT disease in childhood and, depending on the child's predisposition, could be accompanied by OME, AOM or tonsillitis. The course of middle ear and upper airway disease showed a gradual scale from "healthy" to "ill" with most of the children suffering from these conditions at an average frequency.
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ABSTRACT: To estimate the occurrence of and associations between upper respiratory tract infections in preschool children, and to assess constitutional and environmental factors as determinants of these infections. Population-based cross-sectional study. Oslo, Norway. Preschool children, aged 4 to 5 years (3853 completed questionnaires). Acute and recurrent acute otitis media, tonsillopharyngitis, common cold, and rhinitis. Upper respiratory tract infections were common at age 4 years. During the last month, 7.1% of the children had acute otitis media and 7.5% experienced tonsillopharyngitis. Corresponding figures for common cold and rhinitis were 58.3% and 16. 4%, respectively. During the last 12 months, 9.5% of the children experienced more than 1 bout of acute otitis media, 6.9% had more than 1 tonsillopharyngitis episode, 47.7% contracted more than 2 common colds, and 3.2% had rhinitis weekly or monthly. The lifetime prevalence of recurrent acute otitis media (>/=4 episodes in any 12-month period) was 12.7% (n = 473). Bivariate correlations showed small-to-moderate relationships between the infections. Common cold was only weakly related to otitis media, tonsillopharyngitis, and chronic rhinitis. The probability for developing acute otitis media was almost 4-fold increased in children who had tonsillopharyngitis in the last year (adjusted odds ratio = 4.19; 95% confidence interval, 3.09-5.66). In logistic regression analysis, atopic disease was a strong determinant of all upper respiratory tract infections. Low birth weight increased the risk of acute otitis media. Day care attendance and the presence of siblings, which were considered to be indicators of exposure to respiratory pathogens, increased the risk of upper respiratory tract infections. In preschool children, acute otitis media, tonsillopharyngitis, and common cold were quite common, while chronic rhinitis was less prevalent and strongly associated with atopic disease. Attendance at day care centers increased the risk of upper respiratory tract infections in this age group, although the effect was weaker than that in younger children.Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 11/2000; 126(10):1201-6. · 1.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To estimate the relative contribution of genetic and environmental effects on the variance in the liability of recurrent tonsillitis. Retrospective questionnaire data from a population-based cohort. Population-based data from Norway. A total of 9479 Norwegian twins born between January 1, 1967, and December 31, 1979, identified through the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Main Outcome Measure Recurrent tonsillitis. The lifetime prevalence of recurrent tonsillitis was 11.7% (95% confidence interval, 11.0%-12.3%), with a significant predominance of female cases. The tetrachoric correlations for monozygotic twins were 0.71 for males and 0.60 for females. For dizygotic twins, the correlations were 0.12 for males, 0.14 for females, and 0.24 for dizygotic pairs of opposite sex. Structural equation modeling indicated that genetic effects explained 62% of the variation in the liability of recurrent tonsillitis. The remaining variance was attributed to individual environmental effects. There was no evidence of sex-specific genetic effects on the liability of recurrent tonsillitis. There is evidence for a substantial genetic predisposition for recurrent tonsillitis.Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 06/2005; 131(5):383-7. · 1.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Immediate surgery seems to offer no benefit over initial watchful waitingBMJ (online) 01/2011; 343:d5274. · 17.22 Impact Factor