Association scan of 14,500 nonsynonymous SNPs in four diseases identifies autoimmunity variants
ABSTRACT We have genotyped 14,436 nonsynonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) and 897 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) tag SNPs from 1,000 independent cases of ankylosing spondylitis ( AS), autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), multiple sclerosis ( MS) and breast cancer ( BC). Comparing these data against a common control dataset derived from 1,500 randomly selected healthy British individuals, we report initial association and independent replication in a North American sample of two new loci related to ankylosing spondylitis, ARTS1 and IL23R, and confirmation of the previously reported association of AITD with TSHR and FCRL3. These findings, enabled in part by increased statistical power resulting from the expansion of the control reference group to include individuals from the other disease groups, highlight notable new possibilities for autoimmune regulation and suggest that IL23R may be a common susceptibility factor for the major `seronegative' diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Using a multistage genetic association approach comprising 7,480 affected individuals and 7,779 controls, we identified markers in chromosomal region 8q24 associated with colorectal cancer. In stage 1, we genotyped 99,632 SNPs in 1,257 affected individuals and 1,336 controls from Ontario. In stages 2-4, we performed serial replication studies using 4,024 affected individuals and 4,042 controls from Seattle, Newfoundland and Scotland. We identified one locus on chromosome 8q24 and another on 9p24 having combined odds ratios (OR) for stages 1-4 of 1.18 (trend; P = 1.41 x 10(-8)) and 1.14 (trend; P = 1.32 x 10(-5)), respectively. Additional analyses in 2,199 affected individuals and 2,401 controls from France and Europe supported the association at the 8q24 locus (OR = 1.16, trend; 95% confidence interval (c.i.): 1.07-1.26; P = 5.05 x 10(-4)). A summary across all seven studies at the 8q24 locus was highly significant (OR = 1.17, c.i.: 1.12-1.23; P = 3.16 x 10(-11)). This locus has also been implicated in prostate cancer.Nature Genetics 09/2007; 39(8):989-94. DOI:10.1038/ng2089 · 29.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Large-scale association studies hold substantial promise for unraveling the genetic basis of common human diseases. A well-known problem with such studies is the presence of undetected population structure, which can lead to both false positive results and failures to detect genuine associations. Here we examine approximately 15,000 genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms typed in three population groups to assess the consequences of population structure on the coming generation of association studies. The consequences of population structure on association outcomes increase markedly with sample size. For the size of study needed to detect typical genetic effects in common diseases, even the modest levels of population structure within population groups cannot safely be ignored. We also examine one method for correcting for population structure (Genomic Control). Although it often performs well, it may not correct for structure if too few loci are used and may overcorrect in other settings, leading to substantial loss of power. The results of our analysis can guide the design of large-scale association studies.Nature Genetics 06/2004; 36(5):512-7. DOI:10.1038/ng1337 · 29.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The generation of many HLA class I peptides entails a final trimming step in the endoplasmic reticulum that, in humans, is accomplished by two 'candidate' aminopeptidases. We show here that one of these, ERAP1, was unable to remove several N-terminal amino acids that were trimmed efficiently by the second enzyme, ERAP2. This trimming of a longer peptide required the concerted action of both ERAP1 and ERAP2, both for in vitro digestion and in vivo for cellular antigen presentation. ERAP1 and ERAP2 localized together in vivo and associated physically in complexes that were most likely heterodimeric. Thus, the human endoplasmic reticulum is equipped with a pair of trimming aminopeptidases that have complementary functions in HLA class I peptide presentation.Nature Immunology 08/2005; 6(7):689-97. DOI:10.1038/ni1208 · 24.97 Impact Factor