Phytochemical analysis of Andrographis paniculata extract and its antimicrobial activity

World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology (Impact Factor: 1.35). 01/2009; 26:85 - 91. DOI: 10.1007/s11274-009-0146-8

ABSTRACT The present study describes the phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of Andrographis paniculata. For the present investigation, two samples of A. paniculata extracts, obtained by extraction in chloroform and chloroform + HCl, respectively, were compared for their antimicrobial activity and further subjected to GC-MS analysis to find out the nature of the compounds responsible for the antimicrobial activity. The antibacterial activities were assessed by measuring the diameter of the inhibition zones, MIC and MBC values. Compared to the chloroform + HCl extract, the chloroform extract showed better antimicrobial activity against all the nine pathogenic bacterial strains tested. The chloroform extract was observed to be active against the opportunistic and pathogenic gram-negative bacteria, indicating its potential application related to noscomial infections. GC-MS results revealed phenols, aromatic carboxylic acids and esters in the chloroform extract to be the molecules responsible for the antimicrobial activity of A. paniculata. This is the first report on analysis of antimicrobial components from A. paniculata, and our results confer the utility of this plant extract in developing a novel broad spectrum antimicrobial agent.

Download full-text


Available from: Kiranmayee Rao, Jul 17, 2015
  • Source
    • "In traditional medicine A. paniculata is widely used to get rid of a body heat, dispel toxins from the body, prevents common cold, upper respiratory tract influence including sincisits and fever (Gabrielian et al., 2002) and as an antidote against snakes and insect poisons (Samy et al., 2008). A. paniculata have been reported to exhibit various mode of biological activities in vivo as well as in vitro viz, antiviral (Wiart et al., 2000) anti-inflammatory (Wen et al., 2010) anti human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (Calabrese et al., 2000) immuno-modulating/immune-stimulatory (Iruretagoyena et International Journal of Advanced and Innovative Research (2278-7844) / # 63 / Volume 3 Issue 9 al., 2005) anticancer activity (Geethanjali et al., 2008) and antibacterial activity (Parvataneni and Koduru, 2010; Roy et al., 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The phytochemical screening of methanolic leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata was tested for the presence of secondary metabolites such as Alkaloids, Terpenoids, Tannins, Saponins, Flavanoids and Steroids. The chemical constituents present in the methanolic leaf extract of A. paniculata was analyzed by GC-MS and the compounds were identified based on comparison of their retention indices (RI), retention time (RT) and mass spectra. Antifungal effect of the methanolic leaf extract of A. paniculata showed inhibitory effects against human pathogen, Candida albicans. This may be due to the presence of effective biochemical compound present in A. paniculata. The gene expression studies showed decreased level of Rfg1 gene expression in C. albicans upon treatment with methanolic leaf extracts of Andrographis paniculata. The Rfg1 gene was monitored after 48 hours treatment. The Rfg1 gene was re- expressed that shows the organism might have adapted to the environment and created the ability to defend the mode of action of the methanolic extract.
  • Source
    • "Antibacterial potency of drug plants has been studied against certain organism by many researchers and found similar findings (Prasad et al., 2007; Roy et al., 2010; Radha et al., 2011). The anticandidal activity of different extracts (i.e. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Three different extracts of Andrographis paniculata obtained by using three different solvents i.e. acetone, ethanol and water, were used to find out correlation of antimicrobial potency of the drug among them and with storage period of six months. Antibacterial activities were assessed by well diffusion method against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Salmonella typhi and antifungal activity by food poisoning technique against Candida albicans. No definite pattern of antimicrobial nature in acetone, ethanol and aqueous extract could be observed. Acetone extract showed maximum inhibitory (18.3mm) effect among all extract in general. Ethanol extract could attain second position and aqueous extract failed to inhibit growth of any organism even at 100% concentration. A declined trend of inhibitory effect of extract with increased number of storage days has been found showing a negative relation between inhibitory effect of the drug and storage duration. But positive correlation between inhibitory effect and concentration has been recorded. No inhibition was recorded against E. coli by any of the extract Bacterial load in term of CFU/g was found tremendously enhanced with increase of storage period. Negative correlation between microbial load and drug efficacy had been established while positive correlation between microbial load and storage period had been recorded.
  • Source
    • "After incubation, zone of inhibition was measured. Among the five extracts, methanol extract which showed high-level activity was further subjected to phytochemical analysis and active component identification employing HPTLC chromatography (Akowuah et al. 2006) and GC–MS (Roy et al. 2010) analysis. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Respiratory tract and device associated infections caused by biofilm forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa play a primary role in the pathogenesis and prognosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) diseases. The biofilm formed by these pathogens attributes to the antibiotic resistance and protection from host immune response. Once established, the pathogens respond poorly to therapeutic agents. Recently medicinal plants are largely explored as potential source of bioactive agents. In this context the present study reports the antibiofilm activity of the folkloric medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata against biofilm forming CF causative Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from CF sputum. P. aeruginosa was also assessed for their growth and development of the biofilm, phylogenetic relationship and antibiotic susceptibility. Antibiogram of the strains indicated that they were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Six extracts of A. paniculata showed significant antibiofilm activity. P. aeruginosa strains, KMS P03 and KMS P05, were found to be maximally inhibited by the methanol extract to an extent of 88.6 and 87.5% respectively. This is the first report on antibiofilm activity of A. paniculata extracts, and our results indicate scope for development of complementary medicine for biofilm associated infections. KeywordsAntibiofilm activity– A. paniculata – P.aeruginosa
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 07/2011; 27(7):1661-1668. DOI:10.1007/s11274-010-0620-3
Show more