Phytochemical analysis of Andrographis paniculata extract and its antimicrobial activity

World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology (Impact Factor: 1.35). 01/2009; 26:85 - 91. DOI: 10.1007/s11274-009-0146-8

ABSTRACT The present study describes the phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of Andrographis paniculata. For the present investigation, two samples of A. paniculata extracts, obtained by extraction in chloroform and chloroform + HCl, respectively, were compared for their antimicrobial activity and further subjected to GC-MS analysis to find out the nature of the compounds responsible for the antimicrobial activity. The antibacterial activities were assessed by measuring the diameter of the inhibition zones, MIC and MBC values. Compared to the chloroform + HCl extract, the chloroform extract showed better antimicrobial activity against all the nine pathogenic bacterial strains tested. The chloroform extract was observed to be active against the opportunistic and pathogenic gram-negative bacteria, indicating its potential application related to noscomial infections. GC-MS results revealed phenols, aromatic carboxylic acids and esters in the chloroform extract to be the molecules responsible for the antimicrobial activity of A. paniculata. This is the first report on analysis of antimicrobial components from A. paniculata, and our results confer the utility of this plant extract in developing a novel broad spectrum antimicrobial agent.

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    ABSTRACT: Apoptosis mediated leishmanicidal activity of Azadirachta indica bioactive fractions is accompanied by Th1 immunostimulatory potential and therapeutic cure in vivo Abstract Background: Exploration of immunomodulatory antileishmanials of plant origin is now being strongly recommended to overcome the immune suppression evident during visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and high cost and toxicity associated with conventional chemotherapeutics. In accordance, we assessed the in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial and immunomodulatory potential of ethanolic fractions of Azadirachta indica leaves (ALE) and seeds (ASE). Methods: A. indica fractions were prepared by sequential extraction of the powdered plant parts in hexane, ethanol and water. Erythrosin B staining was employed to appraise the anti-promastigote potential of ALE and ASE. Cytostatic or cytocidal mode of action was ascertained and alterations in parasite morphology were depicted under oil immersion light microscopy. Study of apoptotic correlates was performed to deduce the mechanism of induced cell death and anti-amastigote potential was assessed in Leishmania parasitized RAW 264.7 macrophages. In vivo antileishmanial effectiveness was evaluated in L. donovani infected BALB/c mice, accompanied by investigation of immunomodulatory potential of ALE and ASE. Adverse toxicity of the bioactive fractions against RAW macrophages was studied by MTT assay. In vivo side effects on the liver and kidney functions were also determined. Plant secondary metabolites present in ALE and ASE were analysed by Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results: ALE and ASE (500 μg ml −1) exhibited leishmanicidal activity in a time-and dose-dependent manner (IC 50 34 and 77.66 μg ml −1 , respectively) with alterations in promastigote morphology and induction of apoptosis. ALE and ASE exerted appreciable anti-amastigote potency (IC 50 17.66 and 24.66 μg ml −1 , respectively) that was coupled with profound in vivo therapeutic efficacy (87.76% and 85.54% protection in liver and 85.55% and 83.62% in spleen, respectively). ALE exhibited minimal toxicity with selectivity index of 26.10 whereas ASE was observed to be non-toxic. The bioactive fractions revealed no hepato-and nephro-toxicity. ALE and ASE potentiated Th1-biased cell-mediated immunity along with upregulation of INF-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 and decline in IL-4 and IL-10 levels. GC-MS analysis revealed several compounds that may have contributed to the observed antileishmanial effect. Conclusion: Dual antileishmanial and immunostimulatory efficacy exhibited by the bioactive fractions merits their use alone or as adjunct therapy for VL.
    Parasites & Vectors 03/2015; DOI:10.1186/s13071-015-0788-3 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The phytochemical screening of methanolic leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata was tested for the presence of secondary metabolites such as Alkaloids, Terpenoids, Tannins, Saponins, Flavanoids and Steroids. The chemical constituents present in the methanolic leaf extract of A. paniculata was analyzed by GC-MS and the compounds were identified based on comparison of their retention indices (RI), retention time (RT) and mass spectra. Antifungal effect of the methanolic leaf extract of A. paniculata showed inhibitory effects against human pathogen, Candida albicans. This may be due to the presence of effective biochemical compound present in A. paniculata. The gene expression studies showed decreased level of Rfg1 gene expression in C. albicans upon treatment with methanolic leaf extracts of Andrographis paniculata. The Rfg1 gene was monitored after 48 hours treatment. The Rfg1 gene was re- expressed that shows the organism might have adapted to the environment and created the ability to defend the mode of action of the methanolic extract.
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    ABSTRACT: Tetraploid plants were successfully induced for the first time in Mitracarpus hirtus L., by overnight immersion of shoot meristems in 0.1 % colchicine solution, followed by in vitro culture leading to plant regeneration. Examination of ploidy level by flow cytometric analysis and counting chromosome number at metaphase confirmed that original diploid plant (WT1) contained chromosome number as 2n = 2x = 28, whereas 2n = 4x = 56 was observed in the tetraploids induced with colchicine treatment (CC102 and CC110). Thicker root formation, larger stomata (1.3–2 times), and lower density of stomata (1.7–4 times) were observed in these tetraploid plants. After transplantation to the pot, tetraploid plant (CC110) showed higher fresh weights of aerial part and leaves (1.5 and 1.4 times respectively) than diploid. However, the methanolic extracts from leaves of tetraploid line CC102 showed inhibition against human pathogenic bacterium, S. aureus while WT1 and CC110 showed no activity. GC–MS revealed 40 unique compounds present in CC102, but absent in WT1 and CC110. Through hierarchical clustering analysis the 40 unique compounds in CC102 formed a cluster group found to correlate with anti-S. aurens activity. These results suggested that tetraploid M. hirtus CC102 created in this study provides a novel source of compounds useful in fighting infectious disease.
    Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 06/2014; 117(3):381-391. DOI:10.1007/s11240-014-0447-y · 2.61 Impact Factor


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Jun 3, 2014