Treatment of premenstrual syndrome with fluoxetine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.
ABSTRACT Although its etiology is unknown, it has been hypothesized that premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is linked to a deficiency of central serotoninergic activity. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of fluoxetine, a specific serotonin uptake inhibitor, on PMS symptoms.
Following extensive screening, including several psychological inventories, eight women with severe persistent PMS participated in a 6-month double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study which included three months each of daily fluoxetine 20 mg or placebo, administered in a randomized order. Symptoms were evaluated using the Calendar of Premenstrual Experiences and other psychometric measures.
Compared with placebo, treatment with fluoxetine was associated with an improvement in PMS symptoms as judged by highly significant decreases in behavioral (P less than .005), physical (P less than .05), and total (P less than .005) Calendar of Premenstrual Experiences scores; Beck Depression Inventory scores (P less than .005); Profile of Mood States subscales scores including depression (P less than .005), tension (P less than .005), and anger (P less than .01); and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores. The use of fluoxetine was associated with a greater mean reduction in behavioral (75%) than in physical scores (40%), with a mean decrease in total Calendar of Premenstrual Experiences scores of 62%, which rendered these scores similar to follicular phase values. Thus, the luteal phase symptomatology of PMS was effectively abolished. At this dose, no significant side effects or complications were noted during treatment.
Fluoxetine appears to be a highly effective, well-tolerated treatment for the psychological and physical symptoms accompanying severe PMS.
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ABSTRACT: During their reproductive years about 10% of women experience some kind of symptoms before menstruation (PMS) in a degree that affects their quality of life (QOL). Acupuncture and herbal medicine has been a recent favorable therapeutic approach. Thus we aimed to review the effects of acupuncture and herbal medicine in the past decade as a preceding research in order to further investigate the most effective Korean Medicine treatment for PMS/PMDD. A systematic literature search was conducted using electronic databases on studies published between 2002 and 2012. Our review included randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of acupuncture and herbal medicine for PMS/PMDD. Interventions include acupuncture or herbal medicine. Clinical information including statistical tests was extracted from the articles and summarized in tabular form or in the text. Study outcomes were presented as the rate of improvement (%) and/or end-of-treatment scores. The search yielded 19 studies. In screening the RCTs, 8 studies in acupuncture and 11 studies in herbal medicine that matched the criteria were identified. Different acupuncture techniques including traditional acupuncture, hand acupuncture and moxibustion, and traditional acupuncture technique with auricular points, have been selected for analysis. In herbal medicine, studies on Vitex Agnus castus, Hypericum perforatum, Xiao yao san, Elsholtzia splendens, Cirsium japonicum, and Gingko biloba L. were identified. Experimental groups with Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatment (all herbal medicine except Cirsium japonicum) had significantly improved results regarding PMS/PMDD. Limited evidence supports the efficacy of alternative medicinal interventions such as acupuncture and herbal medicine in controlling premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatments for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder showed a 50% or better reduction of symptoms compared to the initial state. In both acupuncture and herbal medical interventions, there have been no serious adverse events reported, proving the safety of the interventions while most of the interventions provided over 50% relief of symptoms associated with PMS/PMDD. Stricter diagnostic criteria may have excluded many participants from some studies. Also, depending on the severity of symptoms, the rate of improvement in the outcomes of the studies may have greatly differed.BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2014; 14(1):11. · 1.88 Impact Factor
Article: Sleep and Women's Health[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sex differences in sleep begin at a very early age and women report poorer sleep quality and have higher risk for insomnia than do men. Sleep may be affected by variation in reproductive hormones, stress, depression, aging, life/role transitions, and other factors. The menstrual cycle is associated with changes in circadian rhythms and sleep architecture. Menstruating women (even without significant menstrual-related complaints) often report poorer sleep quality and greater sleep disturbance during the premenstrual week compared to other times of her menstrual cycle. In addition to these sleep disturbances, women with severe premenstrual syndrome often report more disturbing dreams, sleepiness, fatigue, decreased alertness and concentration during the premenstrual phase. Sleep disturbances are also commonly reported during pregnancy and increase in frequency and duration as the pregnancy progresses. The precipitous decline in hormones and unpredictable sleep patterns of the newborn contribute to and/or exacerbate poor sleep and daytime sleepiness during the early postpartum period. Insomnia is also among the most common health complaints that are reported by perimenopausal women. Women are particularly vulnerable to developing insomnia disorder during these times of reproductive hormonal change. In this review, we present a discussion on the most relevant and recent publications on sleep across the woman’s lifespan, including changes in sleep related to menstruation, pregnancy, postpartum, and the menopausal transition. Treatment for sleep disturbances and insomnia disorder and special considerations for treating women will also be discussed.Sleep Medicine Research. 01/2013; 4(1):1-22.
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ABSTRACT: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common problem and patients with PMS are encountered by obstetricians, gynecologists, family practitioners, internists (general physicians) and psychiatrists. Despite several decades of biological research, the etiology of the disorder is still elusive. The introduction of a psychiatric category called premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), describing women with severe emotional premenstrual symptoms, has advanced biological treatment research by identifying a more homogeneous patient population. This paper aims to review our current understanding of the clinical presentation, underlying psycho-biology, and essentials of treatment for premenstrual dysphoric disorder.International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice 07/2009; 1(3). · 1.31 Impact Factor