Myoelectric activity of the small intestine in enterotoxin-induced diarrhea of calves.
ABSTRACT Electrodes were surgically implanted at 15-cm intervals in the jejunum and ileum of 4 healthy neonatal calves so that myoelectric activity could be recorded on 2 consecutive days. On the first day, each calf received a control treatment, and myoelectric activity was recorded for 340 minutes. Phase I was recorded for a mean of 175.8 +/- 22.8 minutes (51.5%), phase II for 124 +/- 27.4 minutes (36.5%), and phase III for 40.3 +/- 6 minutes (11.9%). On the second day, each calf was treated with approximately 200 micrograms of heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) of Escherichia coli orally. All calves developed diarrhea after the administration of STa. Phase I was recorded for a mean of 92.5 +/- 42.3 minutes (27.2%), phase II for 227.3 +/- 52.5 minutes (66.9%), and phase III for 20.3 +/- 11.4 minutes (6.0%). Increase in phase II and decrease in phases I and III after STa administration were significant (P less than 0.05). Duration of the migrating myoelectric complex was longer after STa administration (median, 64 minutes), compared with the control treatment (median, 54 minutes). Minute rhythms, recorded on the day of toxin administration, ranged from 49 to 153 minutes. There was no difference between the number of migrating action potential complexes on the control days (range, 1 to 10), compared with those on treatment days (range, 1 to 14). These findings are suggestive that enterotoxin-induced diarrhea of calves is accompanied by increased total spiking activity and minute rhythms in the distal portion of the jejunum and ileum.
- Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 01/1996; 10(1):45-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1939-1676.1996.tb02024.x · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An understanding of the relationship between gastrointestinal (GI) motility and disease is imperative for the proper treatment of large animal patients, especially as new therapeutic agents become available. However, the abundance of information that has become available in the last 2 decades makes gaining this understanding a formidable task. This article summarizes the changes in GI motility caused by some common diseases and conditions encountered in large animal practice, such as GI obstruction, postoperative ileus, resection and anastomosis, diarrhea, endotoxemia, GI parasitism, hypocalcemia, and pregnancy.Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 03/1996; 10(2):51-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1939-1676.1996.tb02027.x · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that i.v. endotoxin infusion causes gastrointestinal dysfunction and intestinal injury in piglets. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of endotoxin on intestinal myoelectric activity in newborn swine and to correlate this with gastrointestinal and hemodynamic events. Three pairs of electrodes were implanted in the jejunal wall of piglets, and after recovery, intestinal myoelectric activity was continuously recorded in the conscious, fasted condition. The intestinal myoelectric activity on the control day showed regular, repeating migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) cycles, each of which was composed of the classic phases I, II, and III. Mean cycle duration was 67.0 +/- 18.7 min (+/- SD), and phase III comprised 9.1 +/- 2.2% of each cycle. On the next day, infusion of 30 micrograms/kg endotoxin caused an initial, prolonged quiescent period and delayed the appearance of the first postendotoxin phase III complex. After the quiescent period, there was a period of irregular spiking activity followed by several shortened MMC cycles (47.9 +/- 22.7 min, p < 0.01 versus control) with a prolongation of the percentage of time spent in phase III (15.4 +/- 11.3%, p < 0.01). Endotoxin thus produced biphasic alterations in intestinal myoelectric activity characterized by an initial quiescence followed by increased gastrointestinal smooth muscle activity. Animals developed diarrhea, hypotension, and tachycardia about 1 h after endotoxin infusion in temporal association with increased spiking activity and MMC cycling. These studies are the first to show this biphasic response to endotoxin.Pediatric Research 12/1996; 40(6):822-6. DOI:10.1203/00006450-199612000-00008 · 2.84 Impact Factor