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Anatomical and Histological Structure of the Tongue and Histochemical Characteristics of the Lingual Salivary Glands in the Chukar Partridge (Alectoris chukar, Gray 1830)

British Poultry Science (Impact Factor: 1.15). 01/2011;

ABSTRACT 1. The aim of the study was to examine the morphology of the tongue and the histochemical features of the lingual salivary glands in this species.
2. The tongue was elongated terminating in a rather sharp dagger-like apex. On the surface of the tongue and situated between the body and root of the tongue, two rows of conical papillae, the sharp apices of which pointed towards the posterior part of the tongue, were observed. The keratinized epithelium lining the dorsal surface lacked typical gustatory papillae. However, it was observed that, taste buds were present in the epithelium of the lingual body and root. The tongue was supported by a structure composed of hyaline cartilage, the paraglossum, which extended from the lingual root to the apex. Simple branched tubular glands, which were encapsulated by connective tissue, were embedded within the submucosa in the body (anterior salivary glands) and root (posterior salivary glands) of the tongue. It was observed that the secretion of the lingual glands contained neutral mucins, proteoglycans containing carboxylic acid, weak and strong sulfated groups, N-acetylated sialomucins, but lacked glycogen.
3. It was demonstrated that, the general morphological features, papillary distribution of the tongue and the histological structure of the mucosa epithelium and the supportive elements displayed similarity to those of other domestic avian species. It was also determined that, in view of the particular feeding types, in the partridge, the presence of the papillary crest was not correlated with diet.

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    ABSTRACT: As a reflection of different life styles and environment, the tongue of vertebrates, which plays a major role in the intake and swallowing of food, displays significant morphological differences. The gross form and microscopic structure of the avian tongue differ greatly according to lifestyle. The avian tongue plays a fundamental role in many functions such as capturing, filtering, sucking and manipulating food in order to compensate absence of subsidiary organs like teeth in the oropharyngeal cavity. Variations in lingual papillae play an important role in feeding of birds, as they represent a structure similar to teeth in the upper and lower beaks and can be used to hold and direct food in the oropharyngeal cavity. Tongues of birds exhibit common as well as varying anatomical characteristics in terms of surface morphology, structure and topographical distribution of lingual papillae as well as distinct specialized structures, epithelial layers, taste buds and lingual glands. This review evaluates the important morphological peculiarities of the tongue in birds, focusing on the relationship between anatomical features and feeding functions.
    Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger: official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft 10/2013; · 1.96 Impact Factor

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May 20, 2014