Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the adrenal gland. Fifty biopsies in 48 patients.
ABSTRACT Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of 50 adrenal masses from 48 patients was performed between 1984 and 1991. The series consisted of 28 males and 20 females, with an age range of 12 months to 79 years (mean age, 55 years). Clinical and/or pathologic follow-up was available in 37 patients. Fine-needle aspiration was diagnostic in all 29 malignant cases having follow-up, with no false-positive diagnoses. There were six primary malignancies (three neuroblastomas, two pheochromocytomas, and one adrenal cortical carcinoma) and 23 metastatic lesions. Of these, the lung was the most frequent primary malignancy (60%), followed by melanoma and renal cell carcinoma (8.6% each). The remaining nonmalignant fine-needle aspiration diagnoses were adrenal cortical neoplasms (most likely adenoma), adrenal cortical hyperplasia, myelolipoma, benign adrenal tissue, and abscess. Based on clinical follow-up, three other adrenal adenomas were not diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration. Six biopsy specimens (12%) were insufficient for diagnosis. Ancillary studies including electron microscopy and/or immunocytochemistry were performed on 13 malignant aspirates and provided additional confirmation of the cytology diagnosis in 12 cases. This study confirms that fine-needle aspiration is a sensitive and highly specific procedure for the evaluation of primary and metastatic malignancies involving the adrenal gland. The technique is less useful in the workup of benign processes but, in some instances, can provide specific diagnostic information.
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ABSTRACT: We reviewed the cytologic features of 20 adrenal cortical carcinomas (ACCs; 9 primary and 11 metastatic) from 19 patients and highlighted diagnostic pitfalls. The mean size of primary ACCs was 11.9 cm, and that of metastatic ACCs was 3.0 cm. The metastatic sites were liver, lung, lymph node, soft tissue, and bone. Primary and metastatic ACCs were cytologically similar and showed a wide range of features varying from well-differentiated tumor resembling a benign cortical lesion or low-grade neuroendocrine tumor to poorly differentiated pleomorphic tumor mimicking poorly differentiated carcinoma, melanoma, or high-grade sarcoma. The common cytologic features were hypercellularity (70% of cases), necrotic debris in the background (70%), moderate to marked nuclear pleomorphism (80%), mitotic figures (90%), and prominent nucleoli (60%). Twenty percent of cases exhibited all 5 features; 40% exhibited 4 features, and 40% exhibited 3 features. Necrosis and/or mitosis were found in all cases, even in tumors with bland cytologic features. Cytologic, immunophenotypic, and ultrastructural findings should be correlated with clinical and radiologic information for achieving a proper cytologic diagnosis.American Journal of Clinical Pathology 10/2006; 126(3):389-98. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A 45-year-old woman whose MR images revealed a lobulated, complicated cyst with septations on the superior pole of left kidney underwent retroperitoneoscopic cyst marsupialization. In pathologic examination beneath the atrophic adrenal gland, hyalinized, calcification foci cyst wall without any surrounding epithelium was seen microscopically. It was reported to be "adrenal pseudocyst".International Urology and Nephrology 02/2006; 38(1):167-9. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate a retrospective single-institution outcome after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for adrenal metastases. Between February 2002 and December 2009, we treated 48 patients with SBRT for adrenal metastases. The median age of the patient population was 62.7 years (range, 43-77 years). In the majority of patients, the prescription dose was 36 Gy in 3 fractions (70% isodose, 17.14 Gy per fraction at the isocenter). Eight patients were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery and forty patients with multi-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy. Overall, the series of patients was followed up for a median of 16.2 months (range, 3-63 months). At the time of analysis, 20 patients were alive and 28 patients were dead. The 1- and 2-year actuarial overall survival rates were 39.7% and 14.5%, respectively. We recorded 48 distant failures and 2 local failures, with a median interval to local failure of 4.9 months. The actuarial 1-year disease control rate was 9%; the actuarial 1- and 2-year local control rate was 90%. Our retrospective study indicated that SBRT for the treatment of adrenal metastases represents a safe and effective option with a control rate of 90% at 2 years.International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 02/2011; 82(2):919-23. · 4.59 Impact Factor