Interactions of HTF4 with E-box motifs in the long terminal repeat of human immunodeficiency virus type 1

Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-1393.
Journal of Virology (Impact Factor: 4.44). 10/1992; 66(9):5631-4.
Source: PubMed


We have identified three consensus E-box motifs in the long terminal repeat of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. One of these E boxes interacts selectively with representative members of the class A group of basic helix-loop-helix proteins, including HTF4, E47, and their heterodimers. Our analyses implicate the helix-loop-helix proteins in regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene expression.

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Available from: Minou Bina, Feb 14, 2014
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    • "Indeed, four E box motifs have been described in the LTR of HIV-1; two are located 11 base pairs (bp) upstream and 6 bp downstream of the TATA sequence [4,5]. These two palindromic sequence motifs (CAGATG and CAGCTG) have been referred to as the 5' E box and the 3' E box, respectively [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The palindromic sequence motifs (CANNTG) known as E boxes are considered as binding sites for the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) class of DNA-binding proteins. Their presence has been reported in the long terminal repeats (LTR) of the HIV-1 and HTLV-1 proviruses. Their close proximity with the TATA region of both LTRs indicates that the bHLH proteins may act as important regulators of the function of proviral transcription. Indeed, observations on HIV-1 and recent results on HTLV-1 underline that these E boxes may be critically involved in the regulation of the proviral transcription of these human retroviruses. Indeed, of the two E boxes flanking the TATA sequences of the HIV-1 provirus, the 3' E box has been implicated in the transcriptional inhibition of viral gene expression. Such a role might also be played by the unique 5' E box present in the HTLV-1 LTR. In both cases, the expression of tissue-specfic bHLH proteins, like TAL1 might counteract the inhibitory effect exerted by E box proteins, thereby increasing proviral transcription. Finally, a phylogenetic study encompassing several subtypes of these two human retroviruses underlines that these E box motifs have recently appeared in the proviral LTRs and may be considered as potential mediators in the establishment of proviral latency.
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    ABSTRACT: An upstream control region in the long terminal repeat (LTR) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) includes a potential negative regulatory element (NRE1). Cotransfecting multimers of a sequence spanning this element with an LTR-CAT construct produced an increase in chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in Jurkat and HepG2 cells, providing further evidence and support for the existence of an NRE. In screening experiments aimed at identifying those factors that regulate HIV-1 transcription through interactions with the NRE1 region, we isolated a cDNA for NF-IL6. Previous studies have shown that NF-IL6 is a key nuclear factor that activates gene expression in response to interleukin 6. By methylation interference analysis, we have localized the NF-IL6 binding site within the NRE1 region and found that it overlaps an E box that has previously been implicated as the binding element for a negative regulator of HIV-1 expression. Through a database search, we identified an additional consensus binding sequence for NF-IL6 in the LTR of many HIV-1 variants and found that over this sequence, purified NF-IL6 can produce an extended footprint that overlaps one of the binding sites for NF-kappa B. A product of the nf-il6 gene activated transcription from several LTR-CAT constructs in transient transfection assays. Thus, NF-IL6 could play a central role in the control of HIV-1 gene expression and this protein might be a key mediator in signaling pathways where HIV-1 is activated by interleukin 6.
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    ABSTRACT: The ACTGCTGA sequence (CTG motif) is located immediately upstream of the NF-B enhancer in the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR). We previously reported on the frequent duplication of this motif in HIV-1-infected individuals. In this study we further characterized the role of the CTG element in transcription and its interaction with cellular proteins. We analyzed the biological activity of LTR promoters with dimeric, monomeric or deleted CTG motifs. Our results indicate that LTRs containing the monomeric CTG motif are the most active transcriptional promoters. Furthermore, mutant viruses with dimeric or deleted CTG motif were consistently out-competed by the wild-type virus in co-culture experiments. Gel mobility shift assays were used to identify a nuclear protein of approximately 68 kD that specifically interacts with this DNA sequence.
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