Guilloux L, Ricard-Blum S, Ville G, Motin J. A new radioimmunoassay using a commercially available solid support for the detection of IgE antibodies against muscle relaxants. J Allergy Clin Immunol 90: 153-9
It is well established that muscle-relaxant drugs may be responsible for anaphylactoid reactions during anesthesia. In this study, we developed an in vitro test with a commercially available solid phase for the detection of specific IgE directed to the tertiary or quaternary ammonium groups of neuromuscular-blocking drugs. The solid-phase complex was P-aminophenylphosphoryl-choline (PAPPC) immobilized on agarose, and an RIA was performed with an antihuman IgE labeled with 125I. The results, expressed as the percentage of 125I-labeled anti-IgE linked to the solid phase, were at 0.41 +/- 0.19 for 34 control sera from nonallergic healthy adults, with an upper limit estimated at 1%. The values obtained with the sera of 31 allergic patients ranged from 0.6% to 41% with a sensitivity of 97%. The specificity and the positive predictive value of the PAPPC RIA were 97% and 94%, respectively. These results were compared with results of other RIAs with morphine, trimethylamine, triethylamine immobilized on epoxy-activated Sepharose, and choline hydrochloride immobilized on Sepharose (quaternary ammonium Sepharose RIA) and with Phadebas RAST succinylcholine and Phadebas RAST alcuronium. The PAPPC RIA appears to be the most efficient test to screen sera for the presence of IgE antibodies directed to neuromuscular-blocking drugs. One major advantage is that this solid phase is commercially available and ready to use. This advantage will improve the accuracy in the comparison of the results with results from different laboratories.
"La sensibilité du RAST succinylcholine et du RAST alcuronium (Pharmacia) est e ´ valué e respectivement a ` 66,7 % et a ` 40,7 % dans une e ´ tude cas té moins ré alisé e sur 27 patients . La sensibilité et la spé cificité du dosage QAS-RIA sont estimé es respectivement a ` 87,5 % et 100 % dans une e ´ tude cas-té moins sur 83 patients et 20 té moins , dosage PAPPC-RIA montre une sensibilité de 97 %, une spé cificité de 97 % et une valeur pré dictive positive de 94 % dans une e ´ tude cas-té moins sur 31 patients et 34 té moins . La septiè me enquête multicentrique du GERAP (janvier 2001– dé cembre 2002) , la recherche d'IgE ions ammonium quaternaire a e ´ té ré alisé e chez 193 patients ayant fait une ré action anaphylactique aux curares. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions to anaesthetic and associated agents used during the perioperative period have been increasingly reported during the last 3 decades. The frequency of life-threatening hypersensitivity reactions occurring during anaesthesia has been estimated to vary between 1/1.000 and 1/25.0000 procedures, with muscle relaxants being involved in almost three quarters of the cases. The mortality from these reactions is in the range of 3-6%. Nowadays, natural rubber latex also accounts for a significant number of perioperative anaphylaxis, particularly in children. Clinical manifestations do not allow to differentiate between IgE-mediated anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions resulting from non-specific mediator release. Successful management of these patients requires multidisciplinary approach and includes prompt recognition and stabilisation of the acute event by the attending anaesthetist, determination of the responsible agent(s) with avoidance of subsequent administration of incriminated compound(s). The latter is based upon correct identification of the responsible drug and potentially cross-reactive compounds by the allergist and requires a detailed review of the anaesthetic report as well as appropriate in vitro and in vivo allergy tests. At present, the overall performance of skin tests makes them the "gold standard" for diagnosis of muscle relaxant-induced perioperative hypersensitivity reactions. In addition, given their good negative predictive value, skin tests have been proven to be a useful tool to tailor the appropriate therapeutic alternative. For other compounds diagnosis is more difficult but newer techniques such as analysis of in vitro activated basophils can be helpful.
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