An overview of advances in the standardization of herbal drugs

Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research 01/2011; 2(2):55-70.

ABSTRACT Herbal formulations have reached extensive acceptability as therapeutic agents for several diseases. The
development of authentic analytical methods which can reliably profile the phytochemical composition, including
quantitative analyses of marker/bioactive compounds and other major constituents, is a major challenge to
scientists. Standardization is an important step for the establishment of a consistent biological activity, a consistent
chemical profile, or simply a quality assurance program for production and manufacturing of herbal drugs. WHO
specific guidelines for the assessment of the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal medicines as a prerequisite for
global harmonization are of utmost importance. An overview covering various techniques employed in extraction
and characterization of herbal medicines as well as herbal nanomedicines standardization is reported. In
addition, phytosomes increased bioavailability, bhasma as a metal nanocarrier drug delivery system, potential of
metabolomics in the development of improved phytotherapeutic agents, DNA based molecular markers in
distinguishing adulterants, and SCAR markers for authentication and discrimination of herbs from their
adulterants are reported. The extraction of high-valued herbal compounds using microwave–assisted extraction
and supercritical phase extraction technology followed by the standardization utilizing various spectroscopic,
chromatographic and thermogravimetric techniques individually and/or in combination has been discussed in
relation to herbal drugs. Capillary electrophoresis and polarographic techniques contributions towards
standardization of herbal drugs is also reported. Nanotechnology based Chinese herbal drugs possess improved
solubility and enhanced bioavailability.

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    • "The World Health Organization has developed specific guiding principles to support the associated countries to instigate nationalized policies on plant based drugs and to study their prospective safety, efficacy and quality, as a prerequisite for global harmonization[7] [9] [10]. Standardization is a system ensuring predefined set of the quantity, quality and therapeutic effect of the constituents in each dose[11]. It is an imperative stride in establishing a quality assurance plan for production and manufacturing thereby, curtailing batch to batch variation and reassuring acceptability, safety, quality and efficacy of the polyherbal formulations[12] [13] [14] [15]. "
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    • "So, for an herbal formulation to be accorded acceptability as a therapeutic agent of disease, the issue of its standardization has to be addressed first. This is an important step for establishing a consistent biological activity and a consistent chemical profile towards putting in place a quality assurance programme for production and manufacturing of herbal drugs (Choudhary and Sekhon, 2011). The practice in which botanical materials are converted into medicines where modern scientific techniques and traditional knowledge are properly integrated to ensure standardization and quality control is known as herbal Ogunkunle et al. 2467 drug technology (Patra et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Different types of powdered antimalarial and blood-enriching (haematinic) recipes are used in traditional health system of Southwestern Nigeria. Two of these from Ogbomoso (that is Maloff-HB and Haematol-B, respectively) were recently named following a quantitative definition of their botanical constituents. However, information on the physico-chemical and phytochemical properties as well as the residual constituents of both polyherbal formulations (PHFs) is lacking. The amount of ascorbic acid in them was therefore determined using ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometric method. Their elemental compositions (magnesium, calcium, manganese, iron, zinc, potassium, sodium and copper) were also quantified spectrophotometrically. Maloff-HB and haematol-B contain high quantities of ascorbic acid (mean values of 542.35 and 414.14 mg/100 g, respectively). This is the antioxidant that has been implicated in many redox reactions which promote good health. Both drugs are also rich in Mg (1319.04 and 2340.00 mg/100 g, respectively) and Ca (784.31 and 1011.67 mg/100 g, respectively), these values being comparable to the recommended dietary intakes. The values obtained for Fe/Cu and Fe/Zn ratios can promote bioavailability of these important mineral elements. The important role of ascorbic acid in enhancing iron absorption is discussed with the conclusion that the two drugs have the potential to meet some dietary requirements which promote healthy blood that prevents infections. The study recommends safety and efficacy evaluations of the two PHFs based on their residual constituents, in vivo activity and bioavailability of their beneficial constituents.
    AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 06/2014; 13(24):2466-2473. DOI:10.5897/AJB2014.13808 · 0.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To develop noval bioanalytical parameters for standardization of Zingiber officinale (Z. officinale) extract.Methods Phytochemical analysis, solubility test, heavy metal analysis, antimicrobial study and fingerprint analysis through HPTLC method were carried out in the present investigation. Moreover quantitative analysis of rutin and quercetin in Z. officinale extract through HPTLC techniques were also performed in the present investigation.ResultsPhytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrate, tannin, steroid, triterpenoid, glycoside, triterpenoid, saponin, flavonoid, amino acid and protein. The total phenol and flavonoid content were found to be 0.59% and 4.50%. For quantitative analysis through HPTLC techniques, optimization of solvent system was done and the content of quercetin and rutin in the extract was found to be 3.22% (w/w) and 0.65% (w/w) respectively.Conclusions These above mentioned parameters can be used as an important tool for the standardization of Z. officinale extract.
    01/2013; 2(2):134–136. DOI:10.1016/S2221-6189(13)60113-4
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