An overview of advances in the standardization of herbal drugs

Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research 01/2011; 2:55-70.

ABSTRACT Herbal formulations have reached extensive acceptability as therapeutic agents for several diseases. The
development of authentic analytical methods which can reliably profile the phytochemical composition, including
quantitative analyses of marker/bioactive compounds and other major constituents, is a major challenge to
scientists. Standardization is an important step for the establishment of a consistent biological activity, a consistent
chemical profile, or simply a quality assurance program for production and manufacturing of herbal drugs. WHO
specific guidelines for the assessment of the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal medicines as a prerequisite for
global harmonization are of utmost importance. An overview covering various techniques employed in extraction
and characterization of herbal medicines as well as herbal nanomedicines standardization is reported. In
addition, phytosomes increased bioavailability, bhasma as a metal nanocarrier drug delivery system, potential of
metabolomics in the development of improved phytotherapeutic agents, DNA based molecular markers in
distinguishing adulterants, and SCAR markers for authentication and discrimination of herbs from their
adulterants are reported. The extraction of high-valued herbal compounds using microwave–assisted extraction
and supercritical phase extraction technology followed by the standardization utilizing various spectroscopic,
chromatographic and thermogravimetric techniques individually and/or in combination has been discussed in
relation to herbal drugs. Capillary electrophoresis and polarographic techniques contributions towards
standardization of herbal drugs is also reported. Nanotechnology based Chinese herbal drugs possess improved
solubility and enhanced bioavailability.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Amukkirai chooranam (A. chooranam) is an important traditional herbal preparation and its main component is the root powder of Withania somnifera Dunal (Solanaceae). It is the best remedy for rheumatism, weakness, stress, sleeping disorders, gastric ulcer, anaemia, etc. Aims: The goal of this study was to standardize this traditional herbal preparation on the basis of qualitative and quantitative methods. Study Design: Experimental laboratory study on Phytochemical and Pharmacognostic investigations. Place and Duration of Study: The Phytochemical and pharmacognostic investigations were carried out at the Herbal Technology Section, Industrial Technology Institute (ITI), Colombo, Sri Lanka, between Jan 2012 to August 2012. Methodology: The A. chooranam was prepared according to the procedure given in Traditional Text. The preparation has been standardized on the basis of macroscopic and organolepticcharacters, physicochemical properties, phytochemical screening, fluorescence analysis, and elemental analysis, aqueous and ethanol extractive values, TLC and HPLC fingerprint analysis. Data were analysed by statistical software - Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17. Results: The present study reveals that the A. chooranam was light whitish brown in colour having characteristic odour with bitter taste and smooth texture. The moisture content at 105ºC in A. chooranam was found to be 9.12±0.10%. Analytical results showed total ash, water soluble, acid insoluble and sulfated ash values of 5.76±0.09%, 2.93±0.15%, 0.63±0.04% and 1.92±0.04% respectively. The percentage yields of cold and hot aqueous extractive values (15.02±0.46 & 30.82±1.09) were greater than the percentage yield of cold and hot ethanol extractive values (03.07±0.31 & 10.00±0.22) of A. chooranam. Heavy metal analysis revealed that their concentrations in A. chooranam were below the WHO/FDA permissible limits. Conclusion: A. chooranam exhibits a set of diagnostic characters, which will help to identify the standard preparation and build a monograph of the Siddha pharmacopeia of Sri Lanka.
    European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 02/2015; 5(2).
  • Source
    Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 10/2014; Volume 4(Issue 10):4042-4046.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The methanolic leaves extract of A. wilkesiana was investigated for antibacterial activities and preliminary phytochemical screening. The phytochemical screening was carried out using standard procedures while the antibacterial susceptibility was done using the agar well diffusion method. The phytochemical screening result showed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, steroids as well as terpenoids. The antibacterial susceptibility showed zones of inhibition that ranged between 4mm and 13mm. The MIC ranged between 10mg/ml and 30mg/ml while the MBC range between 30mg/ml and 50mg/ml, for all the organisms used. The results obtained from this research gave scientific support to the use of A. wilkesiana leaves for bacterial chemotherapy and it is suggested that the plant extract could be a promising lead compound for the synthesis of effective chemotherapeutics against the diseases caused by the test organisms used
    Advances in Science and Technology 01/2014; 18:72-76.


Available from
May 15, 2014