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Common method variance or measurement bias? The problem and possible solutions

Publisher: Sage
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    ABSTRACT: Job performance is increasingly being seen to encompass constructs such as organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). To clarify the OCB-CWB relationship, a meta-analysis was conducted. Results indicate a modest negative relationship (p = -0.32). The relationship strength did not increase appreciably when the target of the behavior (the organization vs. other employees) was the same. Moreover, OCB and CWB exhibited somewhat distinct patterns of relationships with antecedents. The OCB-CWB relationship was moderated by the source of the ratings, the presence of antithetical items, and the type of response options. An employee-centric perspective is proposed whereby both OCB and CWB are perceived as adaptive behavior. Implications for organizations are discussed.
    Journal of Applied Psychology 12/2005; 90(6):1241-55. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Positive affectivity (PA), negative affectivity (NA), and impression management (IM), which have been commonly asserted to be method factors that artifactually inflate relations among self-reports of work attitudes, were simultaneously examined using latent variable models. The substantive relations among work attitudes were constituted by direct and indirect effects (through organizational commitment) from job satisfaction and perceived organizational support to intent to quit. Results showed a strong and negative latent correlation between NA and IM but only a weak and positive latent correlation between NA and PA. PA and IM were not correlated. PA had significant and substantial method-effects loadings on measures of work attitudes, NA had no significant method-effects loadings, and IM had significant method-effects loadings only on intent to quit. Latent variable model comparisons that provide direct tests for the impact of these 3 method effects on estimation of substantive relations among work attitudes indicated that the impact was trivial. Implications of the findings are discussed in the context of investigations of method effects and research on relations among substantive constructs involving the use of self-report measures.
    Human Performance - HUM PERFORM. 01/2001; 14(1):77-96.
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    ABSTRACT: On the basis of a distinction between test content and method of testing, the present study examined several conceptually and practically important effects relating race, reading comprehension, method of assessment, face validity perceptions, and performance on a situational judgement test using a sample of 241 psychology undergraduates (113 Blacks and 128 Whites). Results showed that the Black-White differences in situational judgment test performance and face validity reactions to the test were substantially smaller in the video-based method of testing than in the paper-and-pencil method. The Race x Method interaction effect on test performance was attributable to differences in reading comprehension and face validity reactions associated with race and method of testing. Implications of the findings were discussed in the context of research on adverse impact and examinee test reactions.
    Journal of Applied Psychology 03/1997; 82(1):143-59. · 4.31 Impact Factor