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Available from: Muhammad Khalid Bashir, Sep 26, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: From its inception the GATT had guided international trade most successfully until the early 1970s. However, afterwards the developed countries (DCs) increasingly recurred to new forms of trade restrictions not covered by the GATT rules. Ironically, these “grey measures” were mostly against the less developed countries (LDCs). These measures constrained international trade exactly at the time when the LDCs started penetrating developed markets. One of the main objectives of the Uruguay Round (UR) accord was to restrict the surge of protectionism. The accord was the most ambitious and detailed trade accord of all the GATT rounds. It established the World Trade Organisation (WTO). Before the UR accord the discrimination in textiles, clothing and agriculture was severe because tariffs and non-tariff barriers (NTBs) were employed in such a way that the overall effect of protection accumulated. The Round had agreed upon the harmonisation and reduction of tariffs, and elimination of NTBs (in stages) and thus it is expected that the effective protection will diminish in the DCs. The new accord has ensured multilateral rules for these sectors. All members expected that protection would be eventually lower with full implementation of the accord. In order to protect the interest of different groups the WTO has now lay down nondiscriminatory trading rules for services and trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPs), thus covering all major fields of international trade policy.
    Pakistan development review 02/1998; 37(4):687-701.
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    ABSTRACT: There has been growing recognition that Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) agreement can impede trade in agricultural and food products. Pakistan, in particular experiences problems in meeting the SPS requirements of developed countries and, it is claimed, this can seriously impede its ability to export agricultural and food products. Attempts have been made to reduce the trade distortive effects of SPS measures through, for example, the World Trade Organisation (WTO) SPS Agreement, although it is claimed that current initiatives fail to address many of the key problems experienced by Pakistan and other developing countries. The present paper explores implications of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) agreement on exports of agricultural and food products from Pakistan. It identifies the problems that Pakistan faces in meeting SPS requirements and how these relate to the nature of SPS measures and the compliance resources available to Government of Pakistan and the supply chain. The paper examines the impact of SPS agreement on the extent to which SPS measures impede exports from Pakistan. It identifies the problems that limit participation of Pakistan in the SPS agreement and its concerns about the way in which it currently operates. The paper is organised into seven sections. In Section II salient features of the SPS agreement are highlighted. Section III delineates key issues arising from the implementation of SPS measures. Section IV summarises factors determining limits to effective participation of Pakistan and other developing countries in the SPS agreement. Section V outlines main concerns of Pakistan to the adoption and implementation of SPS measures. Section VI presents brief note on wider implications of SPS agreement for Pakistan. And finally Section VII summarises main conclusions and outlines policy measures
    Pakistan development review 02/2003; 42(4):487-510.
  • Intellectual property and development : lessons from recent economic research. A co publication of the World Bank and Oxford University Press. 198 Madison Avenue New York, NY 10016 Gill Problems and solutions in the agriculture sector in the light of WTO. .